Privacy and Security in Firebase

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This page outlines Firebase's key security and privacy information. Whether you're looking to kick off a new project with Firebase, or curious about how Firebase works with your existing project, read on to see how Firebase can help protect you and your users.

Last modified: September 13, 2022

Data protection

Firebase support for GDPR and CCPA

On May 25th, 2018, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) replaced the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive. On January 1, 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) took effect. Google is committed to helping our customers succeed under these privacy regulations, whether they are large software companies or independent developers.

The GDPR imposes obligations on data controllers and data processors, and the CCPA imposes obligations on businesses and their service providers. Firebase customers typically act as the "data controller" (GDPR) or "business" (CCPA) for any personal data or information about their end-users they provide to Google in connection with their use of Firebase, and Google generally operates as a "data processor" (GDPR) or "service provider" (CCPA).

This means that data is under the customer's control. Customers are responsible for obligations like fulfilling an individual's rights with respect to their personal data or information.

Firebase Data Processing and Security Terms

When customers use Firebase, Google is generally a data processor under GDPR and processes personal data on their behalf. Similarly, when customers use Firebase, Google generally operates as a service provider under the CCPA handling personal information on their behalf. Firebase terms include Data Processing and Security Terms detailing these responsibilities.

Certain Firebase services governed by the Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Terms of Service are already covered by associated data processing terms, the GCP Data Processing and Security Terms. A complete list of Firebase services currently governed by the GCP Terms of Service is available in the Terms of Service for Firebase Services.

Crashlytics and App Distribution are governed by the Firebase Crashlytics and Firebase App Distribution Terms of Service, and are covered by those associated data processing terms.

Google Analytics for Firebase and Google Analytics are governed by the Google Analytics for Firebase Terms of Service and the Google Analytics Terms of Service, respectively, as well as the Google Ads Data Processing Terms. For additional information, refer to Safeguarding your data.

Firebase is certified under major privacy and security standards

ISO and SOC compliance

All Firebase services (aside from App Indexing) have successfully completed the ISO 27001 and SOC 1, SOC 2, and SOC 3 evaluation process, and some have also completed the ISO 27017 and ISO 27018 certification process. Compliance reports and certificates for Firebase services governed by the GCP Terms of Service may be requested via the Compliance Reports Manager

Service name ISO 27001 ISO 27017 ISO 27018 SOC 1 SOC 2 SOC 3
Google Analytics for Firebase
Firebase ML
Firebase Test Lab
Cloud Firestore
Cloud Functions for Firebase
Cloud Storage for Firebase
Firebase Authentication
Firebase Crashlytics
Firebase App Check
Firebase App Distribution
Firebase In-App Messaging
Firebase Cloud Messaging
Firebase Performance Monitoring
Firebase Hosting
Firebase Dynamic Links
Firebase Remote Config
Firebase Realtime Database
Firebase Platform
Firebase A/B Testing

International Data Transfers

The Privacy Shield frameworks provided a mechanism to comply with data protection requirements when transferring EEA, UK or Swiss personal data to the United States and onwards. In light of the Court of Justice of the European Union ruling on data transfers, invalidating the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, Firebase has moved to reliance on Standard Contractual Clauses for relevant data transfers, which, as per the ruling, can continue to be a valid legal mechanism to transfer data under the GDPR. The European Commission approved new versions of the Standard Contractual Clauses on June 4, 2021, which we are incorporating into our contracts with Firebase customers for relevant data transfers.

We are committed to having a lawful basis for data transfers in compliance with applicable data protection laws.

Data processing information

Examples of end-user data processed by Firebase

Some Firebase services process your end users' data to provide their service. The chart below has examples of how various Firebase services use and handle end-user data that may potentially be identifying. In addition, many Firebase services offer the ability to request deletion of specific data or control how data is handled.

Firebase service End-user data How data helps provide the service
Cloud Functions for Firebase
  • IP addresses

How it helps: Cloud Functions uses IP addresses to execute event-handling functions and HTTP functions based on end-user actions.

Retention: Cloud functions only saves IP addresses temporarily, to provide the service.

Firebase Authentication
  • Passwords
  • Email addresses
  • Phone numbers
  • User agents
  • IP addresses

How it helps: Firebase Authentication uses the data to enable end-user authentication, and facilitate end-user account management. It also uses user-agent strings and IP addresses to provide added security and prevent abuse during sign-up and authentication.

Retention: Firebase Authentication keeps logged IP addresses for a few weeks. It retains other authentication information until the Firebase customer initiates deletion of the associated user, after which data is removed from live and backup systems within 180 days.

Firebase App Check
  • Attestation material from supported attestation providers
  • App Check tokens from successful attestations

How it helps: Firebase App Check uses attestation material required by the corresponding attestation provider and received from end-user's devices to help establish the integrity of the device and/or the app. Attestation materials are sent to the corresponding attestation provider for validation based on the developer's configuration. App Check tokens obtained from successful attestations are sent with every request to supported Firebase services to access resources protected by App Check.

Retention: Attestation material is not retained by App Check, but when it is sent to attestation providers, it is subject to the terms of those attestation providers. App Check tokens returned from successful attestations are valid throughout their TTL duration, which cannot be longer than 7 days. App Check tokens are not retained by Firebase services.

Firebase App Distribution

How it helps: Firebase App Distribution uses the data to distribute app builds to testers, monitor tester activity, and associate data with tester devices.

Retention: Firebase App Distribution retains user information until the Firebase customer requests its deletion, after which data is removed from live and backup systems within 180 days.

Firebase Cloud Messaging
  • Firebase installation IDs

How it helps: Firebase Cloud Messaging uses Firebase installation IDs to determine which devices to deliver messages to.

Retention: Firebase retains Firebase installation IDs until the Firebase customer makes an API call to delete the ID. After the call, data is removed from live and backup systems within 180 days.

Firebase Crashlytics
  • Crashlytics Installation UUIDs
  • Crash traces
  • Breakpad minidump formatted data
    (NDK crashes only)

How it helps: Firebase Crashlytics uses crash stack traces to associate crashes with a project, send email alerts to project members and display them in the Firebase Console, and help Firebase customers debug crashes. It uses Crashlytics Installation UUIDs to measure the number of users impacted by a crash and minidump data to process NDK crashes. The minidump data is stored while the crash session is being processed and then discarded. Refer to Examples of stored device information for more detail on the types of user information gathered.

Retention: Firebase Crashlytics retains crash stack traces, extracted minidump data, and associated identifiers (including Crashlytics Installation UUIDs) for 90 days.

Firebase Dynamic Links
  • Device specs (iOS)
  • IP Addresses (iOS)

How it helps: Dynamic Links uses device specs and IP addresses on iOS to open newly-installed apps to a specific page or context.

Retention: Dynamic Links only stores device specs and IP addresses temporarily, to provide the service.

Firebase Hosting
  • IP addresses

How it helps: Hosting uses IP addresses of incoming requests to detect abuse and provide customers with detailed analysis of usage data.

Retention: Hosting retains IP data for a few months.

Firebase Performance Monitoring
  • Firebase installation IDs
  • IP addresses

How it helps: Performance Monitoring uses Firebase installation IDs to calculate the number of unique Firebase installations that access network resources, to ensure that access patterns are sufficiently anonymous. It also uses Firebase installation IDs with Firebase Remote Config to manage the rate of performance event reporting. Additionally, it uses IP addresses to map performance events to the countries they originate from. For more information, see Data collection.

Retention: Performance Monitoring keeps installation and IP-associated events for 30 days and de-identified performance data for 90 days.

Firebase In-App Messaging
  • Firebase installation IDs

How it helps: Firebase In-App Messaging uses Firebase installation IDs to determine which devices to deliver messages to.

Retention: Firebase retains Firebase installation IDs until the Firebase customer makes an API call to delete the ID. After the call, data is removed from live and backup systems within 180 days.

Firebase Realtime Database
  • IP addresses
  • User agents

How it helps: Realtime Database uses IP addresses and user agents to enable the profiler tool, which helps Firebase customers understand usage trends and platform breakdowns.

Retention: Realtime Database keeps IP addresses and user agent information for a few days, unless a customer chooses to save it for longer.

Google Analytics for Firebase

How it helps: Google Analytics for Firebase uses the data to provide analytics and attribution information. The precise information collected can vary by the device and environment. For more information see Data collection.

Retention: Google Analytics for Firebase retains certain advertising identifier associated data (e.g., Apple’s Identifier for Advertisers and Identifier for Vendors, Android’s Advertising ID) for 60 days, and retains aggregate reporting without automatic expiration. Retention of user-level data, including conversions, is fixed at up to 14 months. For all other event data, you may set the retention in your Google Analytics for Firebase settings to 2 months or 14 months. Learn more.

Firebase Remote Config
  • Firebase installation IDs

How it helps: Remote Config uses Firebase installation IDs to select configuration values to return to end-user devices.

Retention: Firebase retains Firebase installation IDs until the Firebase customer makes an API call to delete the ID. After the call, data is removed from live and backup systems within 180 days.

Firebase ML
  • Uploaded Images
  • installation auth tokens

How it helps: The Cloud based APIs store uploaded images temporarily, to process and return the analysis to you. Stored images are typically deleted within a few hours. See the Cloud Vision Data Usage FAQ for more information.

installation auth tokens are used by Firebase ML for device authentication when interacting with app instances, for example, to distribute developer models to app instances.

Retention: installation auth tokens remain valid until their expiration date. The default token lifetime is one week.

Examples of stored device information collected by Crashlytics

  • An RFC-4122 UUID which permits us to deduplicate crashes
  • The timestamp of when the crash occurred
  • The app's bundle identifier and full version number
  • The device's operating system name and version number
  • A boolean indicating whether the device was jailbroken/rooted
  • The device's model name, CPU architecture, amount of RAM and disk space
  • The uint64 instruction pointer of every frame of every currently running thread
  • If available in the runtime, the plain-text method or function name containing each instruction pointer.
  • If an exception was thrown, the plain-text class name and message value of the exception
  • If a fatal signal was raised, its name and integer code
  • For each binary image loaded into the application, its name, UUID, byte size, and the uint64 base address at which it was loaded into RAM
  • A boolean indicating whether or not the app was in the background at the time it crashed
  • An integer value indicating the rotation of the screen at the time of crash
  • A boolean indicating whether the device's proximity sensor was triggered

Examples of information collected by Performance Monitoring

  • General device information, such as model, OS, and orientation
  • RAM and disk size
  • CPU usage
  • Carrier (based on Mobile Country and Network Code)
  • Radio/Network information (for example, WiFi, LTE, 3G)
  • Country (based on IP address)
  • Locale/language
  • App version
  • App foreground or background state
  • App package name
  • Firebase installation IDs
  • Duration times for automated traces
  • Network URLs (not including URL parameters or payload content) and the following corresponding information:
    • Response codes (for example, 403, 200)
    • Payload size in bytes
    • Response times

See a full list of the automatic traces collected by Performance Monitoring.

Guides for enabling opt-in for end-user data processing

Services in the table above need some amount of end-user data to function. As a result, it's not possible to entirely disable data collection while using those services.

If you're a customer who would like to offer users a chance to opt-in to a service, and the data collection that comes with it, in most cases that just requires adding a dialog or settings toggle before using the service.

Some services, however, start up automatically when included in an app. To give users a chance to opt-in before using those services, you can choose to disable auto-initialization for each service, and manually initialize them at run time instead. To find out how, read the guides below:

Data storage and processing locations

Unless a service or feature offers data location selection, Firebase may process and store your data anywhere Google or its agents maintain facilities. Potential facility locations vary by service.

US-only services

The Firebase Authentication service is run only from US data centers. As a result, Firebase Authentication processes data exclusively in the United States.

Global services

The majority of Firebase services run on global Google infrastructure. They could process data at any of the Google Cloud Platform locations or Google data center locations. For some services you can make a specific Data Location Selection which restricts processing to that location.

  • Cloud Storage for Firebase
  • Cloud Firestore
  • Cloud Functions for Firebase
  • Firebase Hosting
  • Firebase Crashlytics
  • Firebase Performance Monitoring
  • Firebase Dynamic Links
  • Firebase Remote Config
  • Firebase Cloud Messaging
  • Google Analytics
  • Firebase ML
  • Firebase Test Lab
  • Firebase App Check

Security information

Data encryption

Firebase services encrypt data in transit using HTTPS and logically isolate customer data.

In addition, several Firebase services also encrypt their data at rest:

  • Cloud Firestore
  • Cloud Functions for Firebase
  • Cloud Storage for Firebase
  • Firebase Crashlytics
  • Firebase Authentication
  • Firebase Cloud Messaging
  • Firebase Realtime Database
  • Firebase Test Lab
  • Firebase App Check
  • Firebase Performance Monitoring

Security practices

To keep personal data safe, Firebase employs extensive security measures to minimize access:

  • Firebase restricts access to a select employees who have a business purpose to access personal data.
  • Firebase logs employee access to systems that contain personal data.
  • Firebase only permits access to personal data by employees who sign in with Google Sign-In and 2-factor authentication.

Firebase Service Data

Firebase Service Data is personal information that Google collects and generates during the provision and administration of the Firebase services*, excluding Customer Data** as defined in our customer agreements covering Firebase services and Google Cloud Service Data. Examples of Firebase Service Data include information about service usage, resource identifiers like application IDs and package name/bundle IDs, technical and operational details of usage such as IP addresses, and direct communications with developers from feedback and support related conversations.

*Services covered include Firebase A/B Testing, Firebase App Check, Firebase App Distribution, Firebase Cloud Messaging, Firebase Crashlytics, Firebase Dynamic Links, Firebase Hosting, Firebase In-App Messaging, Firebase ML, Firebase Performance Monitoring, Firebase Realtime Database, Firebase Remote Config, and Firebase User Segmentation Storage.

**For more information about how we process Customer Data, see our Firebase Data Processing and Security Terms and Crashlytics and App Distribution Data Processing and Security Terms.

Examples of how Firebase Service Data is processed by Firebase

Google uses Firebase Service Data in accordance with our privacy policy and applicable terms. Firebase Service Data is used, for example, to:

  • Provide Firebase services you request
  • Make recommendations to optimize use of Firebase services
  • Maintain and improve Firebase services
  • Provide and improve other services you request
  • Understand your use of Firebase and other Google services
  • Provide better support to and communicate with you
  • Protect you, our users, the public and Google
  • Comply with legal obligations

Firebase Service Data use by non-Firebase Google services

You can control whether your Firebase Service Data may be used by Google to provide more in depth analysis, insights, and recommendations about non-Firebase Google services and improve non-Firebase Google services. You can configure this in your Firebase data privacy settings page.

If this control is disabled, Firebase Service Data will continue to be used for other purposes, such as those mentioned above, in accordance with our privacy policy and applicable terms, including to make recommendations about and improve Firebase services, and to deliver and improve other services you request, such as Google products you link to your Firebase project.

Still have questions? Contact us

For any privacy-related questions you have that aren't covered here, reach out to Firebase Support. If you're a Firebase developer, include your Firebase App ID. Find your Firebase App ID in the Your apps card of your Project settings.