Google is committed to advancing racial equity for Black communities. See how.

Set up a Firebase Cloud Messaging client app on Android

To write your Firebase Cloud Messaging Android client app, use the FirebaseMessaging API and Android Studio 1.4 or higher with Gradle. The instructions in this page assume that you have completed the steps for adding Firebase to your Android project.

FCM clients require devices running Android 4.1 or higher that also have the Google Play Store app installed, or an emulator running Android 4.1 with Google APIs. Note that you are not limited to deploying your Android apps through Google Play Store.

Set up the SDK

This section covers tasks you may have completed if you have already enabled other Firebase features for your app.

Before you begin

  • Install or update Android Studio to its latest version.

  • Make sure that your project meets these requirements:

    • Targets API level 16 (Jelly Bean) or later
    • Uses Gradle 4.1 or later
    • Uses Jetpack (AndroidX), which includes meeting these version requirements:
      • com.android.tools.build:gradle v3.2.1 or later
      • compileSdkVersion 28 or later
  • Set up a physical device or use an emulator to run your app.
    Emulators must use an emulator image with Google Play.

  • Sign into Firebase using your Google account.

If you don't already have an Android project and just want to try out a Firebase product, you can download one of our quickstart samples.

Create a Firebase project

Before you can add Firebase to your Android app, you need to create a Firebase project to connect to your Android app. Visit Understand Firebase Projects to learn more about Firebase projects.

Register your app with Firebase

To use Firebase in your Android app, you need to register your app with your Firebase project. Registering your app is often called "adding" your app to your project.

  1. Go to the Firebase console.

  2. In the center of the project overview page, click the Android icon () or Add app to launch the setup workflow.

  3. Enter your app's package name in the Android package name field.

  4. (Optional) Enter other app information: App nickname and Debug signing certificate SHA-1.

  5. Click Register app.

Add a Firebase configuration file

  1. Add the Firebase Android configuration file to your app:

    1. Click Download google-services.json to obtain your Firebase Android config file (google-services.json).

    2. Move your config file into the module (app-level) directory of your app.

  2. To enable Firebase products in your app, add the google-services plugin to your Gradle files.

    1. In your root-level (project-level) Gradle file (build.gradle), add rules to include the Google Services Gradle plugin. Check that you have Google's Maven repository, as well.

      buildscript {
      
        repositories {
          // Check that you have the following line (if not, add it):
          google()  // Google's Maven repository
        }
      
        dependencies {
          // ...
      
          // Add the following line:
          classpath 'com.google.gms:google-services:4.3.4'  // Google Services plugin
        }
      }
      
      allprojects {
        // ...
      
        repositories {
          // Check that you have the following line (if not, add it):
          google()  // Google's Maven repository
          // ...
        }
      }
      
    2. In your module (app-level) Gradle file (usually app/build.gradle), apply the Google Services Gradle plugin:

      apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
      // Add the following line:
      apply plugin: 'com.google.gms.google-services'  // Google Services plugin
      
      android {
        // ...
      }
      

Add Firebase SDKs to your app

  1. Using the Firebase Android BoM, declare the dependency for the Firebase Cloud Messaging Android library in your module (app-level) Gradle file (usually app/build.gradle).

    For an optimal experience with Firebase Cloud Messaging, we recommend enabling Google Analytics in your project. Also, as part of setting up Analytics, you need to add the Firebase SDK for Google Analytics to your app.

    Java

    dependencies {
        // Import the BoM for the Firebase platform
        implementation platform('com.google.firebase:firebase-bom:26.0.0')
    
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When using the BoM, you don't specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics'
    }
    

    By using the Firebase Android BoM, your app will always use compatible versions of the Firebase Android libraries.

    (Alternative) Declare Firebase library dependencies without using the BoM

    If you choose not to use the Firebase BoM, you must specify each Firebase library version in its dependency line.

    Note that if you use multiple Firebase libraries in your app, we highly recommend using the BoM to manage library versions, which ensures that all versions are compatible.

    dependencies {
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When NOT using the BoM, you must specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging:21.0.0'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics:18.0.0'
    }
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    dependencies {
        // Import the BoM for the Firebase platform
        implementation platform('com.google.firebase:firebase-bom:26.0.0')
    
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When using the BoM, you don't specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging-ktx'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics-ktx'
    }
    

    By using the Firebase Android BoM, your app will always use compatible versions of the Firebase Android libraries.

    (Alternative) Declare Firebase library dependencies without using the BoM

    If you choose not to use the Firebase BoM, you must specify each Firebase library version in its dependency line.

    Note that if you use multiple Firebase libraries in your app, we highly recommend using the BoM to manage library versions, which ensures that all versions are compatible.

    dependencies {
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When NOT using the BoM, you must specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging-ktx:21.0.0'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics-ktx:18.0.0'
    }
    

  2. Sync your app to ensure that all dependencies have the necessary versions.

Edit your app manifest

Add the following to your app's manifest:

  • A service that extends FirebaseMessagingService. This is required if you want to do any message handling beyond receiving notifications on apps in the background. To receive notifications in foregrounded apps, to receive data payload, to send upstream messages, and so on, you must extend this service.
  • <service
        android:name=".java.MyFirebaseMessagingService"
        android:exported="false">
        <intent-filter>
            <action android:name="com.google.firebase.MESSAGING_EVENT" />
        </intent-filter>
    </service>
  • (Optional) Within the application component, metadata elements to set a default notification icon and color. Android uses these values whenever incoming messages do not explicitly set icon or color.
  • <!-- Set custom default icon. This is used when no icon is set for incoming notification messages.
         See README(https://goo.gl/l4GJaQ) for more. -->
    <meta-data
        android:name="com.google.firebase.messaging.default_notification_icon"
        android:resource="@drawable/ic_stat_ic_notification" />
    <!-- Set color used with incoming notification messages. This is used when no color is set for the incoming
         notification message. See README(https://goo.gl/6BKBk7) for more. -->
    <meta-data
        android:name="com.google.firebase.messaging.default_notification_color"
        android:resource="@color/colorAccent" />
  • (Optional) From Android 8.0 (API level 26) and higher, notification channels are supported and recommended. FCM provides a default notification channel with basic settings. If you prefer to create and use your own default channel, set default_notification_channel_id to the ID of your notification channel object as shown; FCM will use this value whenever incoming messages do not explicitly set a notification channel. To learn more, see Manage notification channels.
  • <meta-data
        android:name="com.google.firebase.messaging.default_notification_channel_id"
        android:value="@string/default_notification_channel_id" />

Access the device registration token

On initial startup of your app, the FCM SDK generates a registration token for the client app instance. If you want to target single devices or create device groups, you'll need to access this token by extending FirebaseMessagingService and overriding onNewToken.

This section describes how to retrieve the token and how to monitor changes to the token. Because the token could be rotated after initial startup, you are strongly recommended to retrieve the latest updated registration token.

The registration token may change when:

  • The app is restored on a new device
  • The user uninstalls/reinstall the app
  • The user clears app data.

Retrieve the current registration token

When you need to retrieve the current token, call FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().getToken():

Java

FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().getToken()
    .addOnCompleteListener(new OnCompleteListener<String>() {
        @Override
        public void onComplete(@NonNull Task<String> task) {
          if (!task.isSuccessful()) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Fetching FCM registration token failed", task.getException());
            return;
          }

          // Get new FCM registration token
          String token = task.getResult();

          // Log and toast
          String msg = getString(R.string.msg_token_fmt, token);
          Log.d(TAG, msg);
          Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, msg, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }
    });

Kotlin+KTX

FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().token.addOnCompleteListener(OnCompleteListener { task ->
    if (!task.isSuccessful) {
        Log.w(TAG, "Fetching FCM registration token failed", task.exception)
        return@OnCompleteListener
    }

    // Get new FCM registration token
    val token = task.result

    // Log and toast
    val msg = getString(R.string.msg_token_fmt, token)
    Log.d(TAG, msg)
    Toast.makeText(baseContext, msg, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
})

Monitor token generation

The onNewToken callback fires whenever a new token is generated.

Java

/**
 * Called if FCM registration token is updated. This may occur if the security of
 * the previous token had been compromised. Note that this is called when the
 * FCM registration token is initially generated so this is where you would retrieve
 * the token.
 */
@Override
public void onNewToken(String token) {
    Log.d(TAG, "Refreshed token: " + token);

    // If you want to send messages to this application instance or
    // manage this apps subscriptions on the server side, send the
    // FCM registration token to your app server.
    sendRegistrationToServer(token);
}

Kotlin+KTX

/**
 * Called if the FCM registration token is updated. This may occur if the security of
 * the previous token had been compromised. Note that this is called when the
 * FCM registration token is initially generated so this is where you would retrieve the token.
 */
override fun onNewToken(token: String) {
    Log.d(TAG, "Refreshed token: $token")

    // If you want to send messages to this application instance or
    // manage this apps subscriptions on the server side, send the
    // FCM registration token to your app server.
    sendRegistrationToServer(token)
}

After you've obtained the token, you can send it to your app server and store it using your preferred method.

Check for Google Play services

Apps that rely on the Play Services SDK should always check the device for a compatible Google Play services APK before accessing Google Play services features. It is recommended to do this in two places: in the main activity's onCreate() method, and in its onResume() method. The check in onCreate() ensures that the app can't be used without a successful check. The check in onResume() ensures that if the user returns to the running app through some other means, such as through the back button, the check is still performed.

If the device doesn't have a compatible version of Google Play services, your app can call GoogleApiAvailability.makeGooglePlayServicesAvailable() to allow users to download Google Play services from the Play Store.

Prevent auto initialization

When an FCM registration token is generated, the library uploads the identifier and configuration data to Firebase. If you prefer to prevent token autogeneration, disable Analytics collection and FCM auto initialization (you must disable both) by adding these metadata values to your AndroidManifest.xml:

<meta-data
    android:name="firebase_messaging_auto_init_enabled"
    android:value="false" />
<meta-data
    android:name="firebase_analytics_collection_enabled"
    android:value="false" />

To re-enable FCM auto-init, make a runtime call:

Java

FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().setAutoInitEnabled(true);

Kotlin+KTX

FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().isAutoInitEnabled = true

To re-enable Analytics collection, call the setAnalyticsCollectionEnabled() method of the FirebaseAnalytics class. For example:

setAnalyticsCollectionEnabled(true);

These values persist across app restarts once set.

Next steps

After the client app is set up, you are ready to start sending downstream messages with the Notifications composer. This functionality is demonstrated in the quickstart sample, which you can download, run, and review.

To add other, more advanced behavior to your app, you can declare an intent filter and implement an activity to respond to incoming messages. For details, see the guides for sending messages from an app server:

Keep in mind that, to take advantage of these features, you'll need a server implementation and the server procotols (HTTP or XMPP), or an implementation of the Admin SDK.