向多個設備發送消息

Firebase 雲消息傳遞提供了兩種將消息定位到多個設備的方法:

  • 主題消息傳遞,它允許您向已選擇加入特定主題的多個設備發送消息。
  • 設備組消息,允許您向屬於您定義的組的多個設備發送消息。

本教程重點介紹使用Admin SDKREST API for FCM 從您的應用服務器發送主題消息,以及在 android 應用中接收和處理它們。我們將介紹後台和前台應用程序的消息處理。涵蓋了從設置到驗證的所有步驟。

設置 SDK

如果您為 FCM設置了 Android 客戶端應用程序或完成了發送您的第一條消息的步驟,則本部分可能涵蓋您已經完成的步驟。

在你開始之前

  • 安裝或更新Android Studio到最新版本。

  • 確保您的項目滿足以下要求:

    • 針對 API 級別 19 (KitKat) 或更高級別
    • 使用 Android 4.4 或更高版本
    • 使用Jetpack (AndroidX) ,其中包括滿足以下版本要求:
      • com.android.tools.build:gradle v3.2.1 或更高版本
      • compileSdkVersion 28 或更高版本
  • 設置物理設備或使用模擬器來運行您的應用程序。
    請注意,依賴於 Google Play 服務的 Firebase SDK需要設備或模擬器安裝 Google Play 服務。

  • 使用您的 Google 帳戶登錄 Firebase

如果您還沒有 Android 項目並且只想試用 Firebase 產品,您可以下載我們的快速入門示例之一。

創建一個 Firebase 項目

在將 Firebase 添加到您的 Android 應用之前,您需要創建一個 Firebase 項目以連接到您的 Android 應用。請訪問了解 Firebase 項目以了解有關 Firebase 項目的更多信息。

向 Firebase 註冊您的應用

要在您的 Android 應用中使用 Firebase,您需要在您的 Firebase 項目中註冊您的應用。註冊您的應用程序通常稱為將您的應用程序“添加”到您的項目中。

  1. 轉到Firebase 控制台

  2. 在項目概覽頁面的中心,單擊Android圖標 ( ) 或添加應用程序以啟動設置工作流程。

  3. Android 包名稱字段中輸入您應用的包名稱。

  4. (可選)輸入其他應用信息:應用暱稱調試簽名證書 SHA-1

  5. 點擊註冊應用

添加 Firebase 配置文件

  1. 將 Firebase Android 配置文件添加到您的應用中:

    1. 單擊下載 google-services.json以獲取您的 Firebase Android 配置文件 ( google-services.json )。

    2. 將您的配置文件移動到應用程序的模塊(應用程序級)目錄中。

  2. 要在您的應用中啟用 Firebase 產品,請將google-services 插件添加到您的 Gradle 文件中。

    1. 在您的根級(項目級)Gradle 文件 ( build.gradle ) 中,添加規則以包含 Google Services Gradle 插件。檢查您是否也有 Google 的 Maven 存儲庫。

      buildscript {
      
        repositories {
          // Check that you have the following line (if not, add it):
          google()  // Google's Maven repository
        }
      
        dependencies {
          // ...
      
          // Add the following line:
          classpath 'com.google.gms:google-services:4.3.13'  // Google Services plugin
        }
      }
      
      allprojects {
        // ...
      
        repositories {
          // Check that you have the following line (if not, add it):
          google()  // Google's Maven repository
          // ...
        }
      }
      
    2. 在您的模塊(應用級)Gradle 文件(通常是app/build.gradle )中,應用 Google Services Gradle 插件:

      apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
      // Add the following line:
      apply plugin: 'com.google.gms.google-services'  // Google Services plugin
      
      android {
        // ...
      }
      

將 Firebase SDK 添加到您的應用

  1. 使用Firebase Android BoM ,在您的模塊(應用級)Gradle 文件(通常是app/build.gradle )中聲明 Firebase Cloud Messaging Android 庫的依賴項。

    為了獲得 Firebase 雲消息傳遞的最佳體驗,我們建議在您的 Firebase 項目中啟用 Google Analytics ,並將 Firebase SDK for Google Analytics 添加到您的應用中。

    Java

    dependencies {
        // Import the BoM for the Firebase platform
        implementation platform('com.google.firebase:firebase-bom:30.1.0')
    
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When using the BoM, you don't specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics'
    }
    

    通過使用Firebase Android BoM ,您的應用將始終使用兼容版本的 Firebase Android 庫。

    (替代)使用 BoM 的情況下聲明 Firebase 庫依賴項

    如果您選擇不使用 Firebase BoM,則必須在其依賴行中指定每個 Firebase 庫版本。

    請注意,如果您在應用中使用多個Firebase 庫,我們強烈建議您使用 BoM 來管理庫版本,以確保所有版本都兼容。

    dependencies {
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When NOT using the BoM, you must specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging:23.0.6'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics:21.0.0'
    }
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    dependencies {
        // Import the BoM for the Firebase platform
        implementation platform('com.google.firebase:firebase-bom:30.1.0')
    
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When using the BoM, you don't specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging-ktx'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics-ktx'
    }
    

    通過使用Firebase Android BoM ,您的應用將始終使用兼容版本的 Firebase Android 庫。

    (替代)使用 BoM 的情況下聲明 Firebase 庫依賴項

    如果您選擇不使用 Firebase BoM,則必須在其依賴行中指定每個 Firebase 庫版本。

    請注意,如果您在應用中使用多個Firebase 庫,我們強烈建議您使用 BoM 來管理庫版本,以確保所有版本都兼容。

    dependencies {
        // Declare the dependencies for the Firebase Cloud Messaging and Analytics libraries
        // When NOT using the BoM, you must specify versions in Firebase library dependencies
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging-ktx:23.0.6'
        implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-analytics-ktx:21.0.0'
    }
    

  2. 同步您的應用程序以確保所有依賴項都具有必要的版本。

為客戶端應用訂閱主題

客戶端應用程序可以訂閱任何現有主題,也可以創建新主題。當客戶端應用訂閱新主題名稱(您的 Firebase 項目尚不存在的主題名稱)時,會在 FCM 中創建該名稱的新主題,隨後任何客戶端都可以訂閱它。

要訂閱主題,客戶端應用程序使用 FCM 主題名稱調用 Firebase 雲消息傳遞subscribeToTopic() 。此方法返回一個Task ,完成偵聽器可以使用它來確定訂閱是否成功:

Java

FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().subscribeToTopic("weather")
        .addOnCompleteListener(new OnCompleteListener<Void>() {
            @Override
            public void onComplete(@NonNull Task<Void> task) {
                String msg = "Subscribed";
                if (!task.isSuccessful()) {
                    msg = "Subscribe failed";
                }
                Log.d(TAG, msg);
                Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, msg, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });

Kotlin+KTX

Firebase.messaging.subscribeToTopic("weather")
    .addOnCompleteListener { task ->
        var msg = "Subscribed"
        if (!task.isSuccessful) {
            msg = "Subscribe failed"
        }
        Log.d(TAG, msg)
        Toast.makeText(baseContext, msg, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
    }

要取消訂閱,客戶端應用程序使用主題名稱調用 Firebase Cloud Messaging unsubscribeFromTopic()

接收和處理主題消息

FCM 以與其他下游消息相同的方式傳遞主題消息。

要接收消息,請使用擴展FirebaseMessagingService的服務。您的服務應覆蓋onMessageReceivedonDeletedMessages回調。它應該在收到後 20 秒內處理任何消息(Android Marshmallow 為 10 秒)。時間窗口可能會更短,具體取決於調用onMessageReceived之前發生的操作系統延遲。在那之後,各種操作系統行為(例如 Android O 的後台執行限制)可能會干擾您完成工作的能力。有關更多信息,請參閱我們的消息優先級概述。

大多數消息類型都提供了onMessageReceived ,但以下情況除外:

  • 當您的應用程序在後台時傳遞的通知消息。在這種情況下,通知將傳送到設備的系統托盤。默認情況下,用戶點擊通知會打開應用啟動器。

  • 在後台接收時帶有通知和數據負載的消息。在這種情況下,通知被傳遞到設備的系統托盤,數據負載被傳遞到啟動器 Activity 的附加內容中。

總之:

應用狀態通知數據兩個都
前景onMessageReceived onMessageReceived onMessageReceived
背景系統托盤onMessageReceived通知:系統托盤
數據:額外的意圖。
有關消息類型的更多信息,請參閱通知和數據消息

編輯應用清單

要使用FirebaseMessagingService ,您需要在應用清單中添加以下內容:

<service
    android:name=".java.MyFirebaseMessagingService"
    android:exported="false">
    <intent-filter>
        <action android:name="com.google.firebase.MESSAGING_EVENT" />
    </intent-filter>
</service>

此外,建議您設置默認值以自定義通知的外觀。您可以指定自定義默認圖標和自定義默認顏色,只要未在通知有效負載中設置等效值,就會應用這些圖標和自定義默認顏色。

application標籤內添加這些行以設置自定義默認圖標和自定義顏色:

<!-- Set custom default icon. This is used when no icon is set for incoming notification messages.
     See README(https://goo.gl/l4GJaQ) for more. -->
<meta-data
    android:name="com.google.firebase.messaging.default_notification_icon"
    android:resource="@drawable/ic_stat_ic_notification" />
<!-- Set color used with incoming notification messages. This is used when no color is set for the incoming
     notification message. See README(https://goo.gl/6BKBk7) for more. -->
<meta-data
    android:name="com.google.firebase.messaging.default_notification_color"
    android:resource="@color/colorAccent" />

Android 顯示自定義默認圖標

  • Notifications composer發送的所有通知消息。
  • 任何未在通知有效負載中明確設置圖標的通知消息。

Android 使用自定義默認顏色

  • Notifications composer發送的所有通知消息。
  • 任何未在通知負載中明確設置顏色的通知消息。

如果未設置自定義默認圖標且未在通知負載中設置圖標,則 Android 會顯示呈現為白色的應用程序圖標。

覆蓋onMessageReceived

通過覆蓋FirebaseMessagingService.onMessageReceived方法,您可以根據接收到的RemoteMessage對象執行操作並獲取消息數據:

Java

@Override
public void onMessageReceived(RemoteMessage remoteMessage) {
    // TODO(developer): Handle FCM messages here.
    // Not getting messages here? See why this may be: https://goo.gl/39bRNJ
    Log.d(TAG, "From: " + remoteMessage.getFrom());

    // Check if message contains a data payload.
    if (remoteMessage.getData().size() > 0) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Message data payload: " + remoteMessage.getData());

        if (/* Check if data needs to be processed by long running job */ true) {
            // For long-running tasks (10 seconds or more) use WorkManager.
            scheduleJob();
        } else {
            // Handle message within 10 seconds
            handleNow();
        }

    }

    // Check if message contains a notification payload.
    if (remoteMessage.getNotification() != null) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Message Notification Body: " + remoteMessage.getNotification().getBody());
    }

    // Also if you intend on generating your own notifications as a result of a received FCM
    // message, here is where that should be initiated. See sendNotification method below.
}

Kotlin+KTX

override fun onMessageReceived(remoteMessage: RemoteMessage) {
    // TODO(developer): Handle FCM messages here.
    // Not getting messages here? See why this may be: https://goo.gl/39bRNJ
    Log.d(TAG, "From: ${remoteMessage.from}")

    // Check if message contains a data payload.
    if (remoteMessage.data.isNotEmpty()) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Message data payload: ${remoteMessage.data}")

        if (/* Check if data needs to be processed by long running job */ true) {
            // For long-running tasks (10 seconds or more) use WorkManager.
            scheduleJob()
        } else {
            // Handle message within 10 seconds
            handleNow()
        }
    }

    // Check if message contains a notification payload.
    remoteMessage.notification?.let {
        Log.d(TAG, "Message Notification Body: ${it.body}")
    }

    // Also if you intend on generating your own notifications as a result of a received FCM
    // message, here is where that should be initiated. See sendNotification method below.
}

覆蓋onDeletedMessages

在某些情況下,FCM 可能不會傳遞消息。如果您的應用在連接時在特定設備上等待處理的消息過多 (>100),或者如果該設備超過一個月未連接到 FCM,則會發生這種情況。在這些情況下,您可能會收到對FirebaseMessagingService.onDeletedMessages()的回調。當應用實例收到此回調時,它應該與您的應用服務器執行完全同步。如果您在過去 4 週內未向該設備上的應用發送消息,FCM 將不會調用onDeletedMessages()

在後台應用程序中處理通知消息

當您的應用程序處於後台時,Android 會將通知消息定向到系統托盤。默認情況下,用戶點擊通知會打開應用啟動器。

這包括同時包含通知和數據負載的消息(以及從通知控制台發送的所有消息)。在這些情況下,通知會被傳遞到設備的系統托盤,而數據負載會在啟動器 Activity 的意圖的附加部分中傳遞。

要深入了解向您的應用程序傳遞的消息,請參閱FCM 報告儀表板,它記錄了在 Apple 和 Android 設備上發送和打開的消息數量,以及 Android 應用程序的“展示次數”(用戶看到的通知)的數據。

後台受限應用(Android P 或更新版本)

FCM 可能不會向用戶設置後台限制的應用程序發送消息(例如通過:設置 -> 應用程序和通知 -> [應用程序名稱] -> 電池)。一旦您的應用程序從後台限制中刪除,新消息將像以前一樣傳遞到該應用程序。為了防止丟失消息和其他後台限制影響,請確保避免Android Vitals努力列出的不良行為。這些行為可能會導致 Android 設備向用戶建議您的應用受後台限制。你的應用可以使用isBackgroundRestricted()檢查它是否被後台限制。

構建發送請求

創建主題後,通過在客戶端訂閱客戶端應用程序實例或通過服務器 API訂閱主題,您可以向該主題發送消息。如果這是您第一次為 FCM 構建發送請求,請參閱服務器環境和 FCM指南以獲取重要的背景和設置信息。

在後端的發送邏輯中,指定所需的主題名稱,如下所示:

節點.js

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
const topic = 'highScores';

const message = {
  data: {
    score: '850',
    time: '2:45'
  },
  topic: topic
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the provided topic.
getMessaging().send(message)
  .then((response) => {
    // Response is a message ID string.
    console.log('Successfully sent message:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error sending message:', error);
  });

爪哇

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
String topic = "highScores";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
Message message = Message.builder()
    .putData("score", "850")
    .putData("time", "2:45")
    .setTopic(topic)
    .build();

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
String response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().send(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
System.out.println("Successfully sent message: " + response);

Python

# The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
topic = 'highScores'

# See documentation on defining a message payload.
message = messaging.Message(
    data={
        'score': '850',
        'time': '2:45',
    },
    topic=topic,
)

# Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
response = messaging.send(message)
# Response is a message ID string.
print('Successfully sent message:', response)

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
topic := "highScores"

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
message := &messaging.Message{
	Data: map[string]string{
		"score": "850",
		"time":  "2:45",
	},
	Topic: topic,
}

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
response, err := client.Send(ctx, message)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// Response is a message ID string.
fmt.Println("Successfully sent message:", response)

C#

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
var topic = "highScores";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
var message = new Message()
{
    Data = new Dictionary<string, string>()
    {
        { "score", "850" },
        { "time", "2:45" },
    },
    Topic = topic,
};

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
string response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.SendAsync(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
Console.WriteLine("Successfully sent message: " + response);

休息

POST https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA
{
  "message":{
    "topic" : "foo-bar",
    "notification" : {
      "body" : "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title" : "FCM Message"
      }
   }
}

捲曲命令:

curl -X POST -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{
  "message": {
    "topic" : "foo-bar",
    "notification": {
      "body": "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title": "FCM Message"
    }
  }
}' https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

要將消息發送到主題組合,請指定條件,它是指定目標主題的布爾表達式。例如,以下條件將向訂閱了TopicATopicBTopicC的設備發送消息:

"'TopicA' in topics && ('TopicB' in topics || 'TopicC' in topics)"

FCM 首先計算括號中的任何條件,然後從左到右計算表達式。在上面的表達式中,訂閱任何單個主題的用戶都不會收到消息。同樣,未訂閱TopicA的用戶也不會收到該消息。這些組合確實收到了它:

  • TopicATopicB
  • TopicATopicC

您最多可以在條件表達式中包含五個主題。

發送到條件:

節點.js

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
const condition = '\'stock-GOOG\' in topics || \'industry-tech\' in topics';

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
const message = {
  notification: {
    title: '$FooCorp up 1.43% on the day',
    body: '$FooCorp gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.'
  },
  condition: condition
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
getMessaging().send(message)
  .then((response) => {
    // Response is a message ID string.
    console.log('Successfully sent message:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error sending message:', error);
  });

爪哇

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
String condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
Message message = Message.builder()
    .setNotification(Notification.builder()
        .setTitle("$GOOG up 1.43% on the day")
        .setBody("$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.")
        .build())
    .setCondition(condition)
    .build();

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
String response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().send(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
System.out.println("Successfully sent message: " + response);

Python

# Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
# to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics"

# See documentation on defining a message payload.
message = messaging.Message(
    notification=messaging.Notification(
        title='$GOOG up 1.43% on the day',
        body='$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.',
    ),
    condition=condition,
)

# Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
# specified by the provided condition.
response = messaging.send(message)
# Response is a message ID string.
print('Successfully sent message:', response)

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
condition := "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics"

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
message := &messaging.Message{
	Data: map[string]string{
		"score": "850",
		"time":  "2:45",
	},
	Condition: condition,
}

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
response, err := client.Send(ctx, message)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// Response is a message ID string.
fmt.Println("Successfully sent message:", response)

C#

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
var condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
var message = new Message()
{
    Notification = new Notification()
    {
        Title = "$GOOG up 1.43% on the day",
        Body = "$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.",
    },
    Condition = condition,
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
string response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.SendAsync(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
Console.WriteLine("Successfully sent message: " + response);

休息

POST https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA
{
   "message":{
    "condition": "'dogs' in topics || 'cats' in topics",
    "notification" : {
      "body" : "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title" : "FCM Message",
    }
  }
}

捲曲命令:

curl -X POST -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{
  "notification": {
    "title": "FCM Message",
    "body": "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
  },
  "condition": "'dogs' in topics || 'cats' in topics"
}' https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

下一步