This document describes how to use Robo scripts, which are tests that automate manual QA tasks for mobile apps, and enable continuous integration (CI) and pre-launch testing strategies. For example, you can use Robo scripts to test a common user journey or provide specific user interface (UI) input, like a username and password. Robo scripts are a feature of Robo test.
Robo scripts use Robo test
as the test engine. In its most basic form, a Robo script consists of a
sequence of UI actions like enter text 'username' and
then tap the OK button. Robo scripts can also include actions like waiting
for an element to appear, tapping at a specific point within an element, and
executing Android Debug Bridge (
adb) shell commands.
Robo scripts have the following advantages over traditional testing frameworks:
|Robo scripts can tolerate significant structural and behavioral differences between app versions and app flakiness.
|After a Robo script completes, the base Robo test can take over and continue testing the app. This continued testing approach enables several key use cases. For example, you can use a Robo script to bring an app into a particular state by performing a custom sign-in flow.
|You don't need to code Robo scripts manually. They can be recorded using the Robo script recorder in Android Studio. Creating or modifying Robo scripts typically doesn't require any knowledge of mobile development.
|Robo scripts can interact with non-native UI elements that are common in games.
Robo scripts are conditionally triggered during a Robo test, which lets users augment Robo's behavior - typically to achieve greater coverage or target specific functionality. In contrast to traditional testing frameworks, Robo scripts support the following:
- Various triggering conditions, for example, a particular app package name being active (or not) or a specific element being displayed on the screen (or not).
- Execution controls, for example, a maximum number of executions, priority, relevant crawl stage.
- Unconventional action types (conditional, element-ignoring, screen-closing).
We recommend that you use Robo scripts whenever possible because they can be maintained effortlessly. For example, you can use a Robo script to do the following:
- Navigate significant workflows to get to the core of an app's functionality. For example, you can perform a sign-in, set up an app's state after the first launch, and register a new user.
- Focus Robo on a particular part of an app to get the most out of Robo test time. Robo script guides Robo test to reach the relevant part of an app, where Robo test resumes a fully automated crawl.
- Perform an end-to-end instrumentation test, with or without Robo test resuming a fully automated crawl after the Robo script is complete.
Use more advanced Robo script features to do the following:
- Perform actions before Robo starts crawling the app-under-test or after a crawl is finished, for example, clean the app-under-test data before a crawl, or change device settings.
- Change aspects of Robo behavior during a crawl, in particular:
- Make Robo ignore some UI widgets or app screens.
- Provide a custom action for Robo to perform when backtracking from a particular screen.
- Make Robo perform specific actions whenever a particular app screen is encountered during a crawl.
- Completely customize how Robo performs a crawl. For example, use a combination of conditional and non-conditional actions to keep the app-under-test in the background throughout the crawl, while performing device manipulations and dismissing any popup dialogs that appear along the way.
Keep in mind that Robo scripts don't replace all kinds of tests. You still need unit tests to catch low-level logic bugs in your app; these tests typically don't require an Android or iOS environment. We recommend that you supplement Robo script tests with targeted instrumentation tests that can have specific, detailed assertions about business logic, which are best expressed in code.
To learn about Robo scripts structure, capabilities, usage, and actions, see the Robo scripts reference guide.