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向 Web/JavaScript 上的主題發送消息

基於發布/訂閱模型,FCM 主題消息傳遞允許您向選擇加入特定主題的多個設備發送消息。您可以根據需要編寫主題消息,FCM 會處理路由並將消息可靠地傳送到正確的設備。

例如,當地潮汐預報應用程序的用戶可以選擇加入“潮汐警報”主題,並接收有關指定區域最佳鹹水捕魚條件的通知。體育應用程序的用戶可以訂閱他們最喜歡的球隊的實時比賽比分的自動更新。

有關主題的一些注意事項:

  • 主題消息最適合天氣或其他公開信息等內容。
  • 主題消息吞吐量而非延遲優化。對於快速,安全遞送到單個設備或設備組小,目標消息註冊標記,而不是主題。
  • 如果你需要為每個用戶將消息發送到多個設備,考慮設備組消息對於那些使用案例。
  • 主題消息支持每個主題的無限訂閱。但是,FCM 在以下方面強制執行限制:
    • 一個應用實例最多可以訂閱 2000 個主題。
    • 如果您使用批量導入訂閱應用程序的情況下,每個請求僅限於1000應用實例。
    • 每個項目的新訂閱頻率是有限的。如果在短時間內發送過多的預訂請求,FCM服務器將與響應429 RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED (“超出配額”)的反應。使用指數退避重試。

將客戶端應用程序訂閱到主題

您可以將註冊令牌列表傳遞給 Firebase Admin SDK 訂閱方法,以便為相應的設備訂閱主題:

節點.js

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
const registrationTokens = [
  'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1',
  // ...
  'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n'
];

// Subscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens to the
// topic.
getMessaging().subscribeToTopic(registrationTokens, topic)
  .then((response) => {
    // See the MessagingTopicManagementResponse reference documentation
    // for the contents of response.
    console.log('Successfully subscribed to topic:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error subscribing to topic:', error);
  });

爪哇

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
List<String> registrationTokens = Arrays.asList(
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
    // ...
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n"
);

// Subscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens to the
// topic.
TopicManagementResponse response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().subscribeToTopic(
    registrationTokens, topic);
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
System.out.println(response.getSuccessCount() + " tokens were subscribed successfully");

Python

# These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
registration_tokens = [
    'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1',
    # ...
    'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n',
]

# Subscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens to the
# topic.
response = messaging.subscribe_to_topic(registration_tokens, topic)
# See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
# for the contents of response.
print(response.success_count, 'tokens were subscribed successfully')

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
registrationTokens := []string{
	"YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
	// ...
	"YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n",
}

// Subscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens to the
// topic.
response, err := client.SubscribeToTopic(ctx, registrationTokens, topic)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
fmt.Println(response.SuccessCount, "tokens were subscribed successfully")

C#

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
var registrationTokens = new List<string>()
{
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
    // ...
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n",
};

// Subscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens to the
// topic
var response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.SubscribeToTopicAsync(
    registrationTokens, topic);
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
Console.WriteLine($"{response.SuccessCount} tokens were subscribed successfully");

Admin FCM API 還允許您通過將註冊令牌傳遞給適當的方法來取消訂閱設備的主題:

節點.js

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
const registrationTokens = [
  'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1',
  // ...
  'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n'
];

// Unsubscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens from
// the topic.
getMessaging().unsubscribeFromTopic(registrationTokens, topic)
  .then((response) => {
    // See the MessagingTopicManagementResponse reference documentation
    // for the contents of response.
    console.log('Successfully unsubscribed from topic:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error unsubscribing from topic:', error);
  });

爪哇

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
List<String> registrationTokens = Arrays.asList(
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
    // ...
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n"
);

// Unsubscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens from
// the topic.
TopicManagementResponse response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().unsubscribeFromTopic(
    registrationTokens, topic);
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
System.out.println(response.getSuccessCount() + " tokens were unsubscribed successfully");

Python

# These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
registration_tokens = [
    'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1',
    # ...
    'YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n',
]

# Unubscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens from the
# topic.
response = messaging.unsubscribe_from_topic(registration_tokens, topic)
# See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
# for the contents of response.
print(response.success_count, 'tokens were unsubscribed successfully')

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
registrationTokens := []string{
	"YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
	// ...
	"YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n",
}

// Unsubscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens from
// the topic.
response, err := client.UnsubscribeFromTopic(ctx, registrationTokens, topic)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
fmt.Println(response.SuccessCount, "tokens were unsubscribed successfully")

C#

// These registration tokens come from the client FCM SDKs.
var registrationTokens = new List<string>()
{
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_1",
    // ...
    "YOUR_REGISTRATION_TOKEN_n",
};

// Unsubscribe the devices corresponding to the registration tokens from the
// topic
var response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.UnsubscribeFromTopicAsync(
    registrationTokens, topic);
// See the TopicManagementResponse reference documentation
// for the contents of response.
Console.WriteLine($"{response.SuccessCount} tokens were unsubscribed successfully");

所述subscribeToTopic()unsubscribeFromTopic()方法的結果在含有從FCM的響應的對象。無論請求中指定的註冊令牌數量如何,返回類型都具有相同的格式。

如果出現錯誤(身份驗證失敗、無效令牌或主題等),這些方法會導致錯誤。有關錯誤代碼,包括說明和解決步驟的完整列表,請參閱管理員FCM API錯誤

接收和處理主題消息

FCM 以與其他下游消息相同的方式傳遞主題消息。如何在客戶端處理消息取決於網頁的前台/後台狀態以及本節中描述的其他因素。

消息的行為取決於頁面是在前台(有焦點)還是在後台、隱藏在其他選項卡後面或完全關閉。在所有情況下的頁面必須處理onMessage回調,但在背景情況下,您可能還需要處理onBackgroundMessage或配置顯示通知,允許用戶把你的web應用程序推向前台。

應用狀態通知數據兩個都
前景onMessage onMessage onMessage
背景(服務工作者) onBackgroundMessage (顯示通知自動示出) onBackgroundMessage onBackgroundMessage (顯示通知自動示出)

當您的 Web 應用程序在前台時處理消息

為了收到onMessage事件,您的應用程序必須定義在火力地堡通訊服務工作者firebase-messaging-sw.js 。或者,也可以通過提供一種現有服務工人將SDK getToken(): Promise<string>

網頁版 9

import { initializeApp } from "firebase/app";
import { getMessaging } from "firebase/messaging/sw";

// Initialize the Firebase app in the service worker by passing in
// your app's Firebase config object.
// https://firebase.google.com/docs/web/setup#config-object
const firebaseApp = initializeApp({
  apiKey: 'api-key',
  authDomain: 'project-id.firebaseapp.com',
  databaseURL: 'https://project-id.firebaseio.com',
  projectId: 'project-id',
  storageBucket: 'project-id.appspot.com',
  messagingSenderId: 'sender-id',
  appId: 'app-id',
  measurementId: 'G-measurement-id',
});

// Retrieve an instance of Firebase Messaging so that it can handle background
// messages.
const messaging = getMessaging(firebaseApp);

網頁版 8

// Give the service worker access to Firebase Messaging.
// Note that you can only use Firebase Messaging here. Other Firebase libraries
// are not available in the service worker.
importScripts('https://www.gstatic.com/firebasejs/8.10.0/firebase-app.js');
importScripts('https://www.gstatic.com/firebasejs/8.10.0/firebase-messaging.js');

// Initialize the Firebase app in the service worker by passing in
// your app's Firebase config object.
// https://firebase.google.com/docs/web/setup#config-object
firebase.initializeApp({
  apiKey: 'api-key',
  authDomain: 'project-id.firebaseapp.com',
  databaseURL: 'https://project-id.firebaseio.com',
  projectId: 'project-id',
  storageBucket: 'project-id.appspot.com',
  messagingSenderId: 'sender-id',
  appId: 'app-id',
  measurementId: 'G-measurement-id',
});

// Retrieve an instance of Firebase Messaging so that it can handle background
// messages.
const messaging = firebase.messaging();

當您的應用程序處於前台時(用戶當前正在查看您的網頁),您可以直接在頁面中接收數據和通知負載。

網頁版 9

// Handle incoming messages. Called when:
// - a message is received while the app has focus
// - the user clicks on an app notification created by a service worker
//   `messaging.onBackgroundMessage` handler.
import { getMessaging, onMessage } from "firebase/messaging";

const messaging = getMessaging();
onMessage(messaging, (payload) => {
  console.log('Message received. ', payload);
  // ...
});

網頁版 8

// Handle incoming messages. Called when:
// - a message is received while the app has focus
// - the user clicks on an app notification created by a service worker
//   `messaging.onBackgroundMessage` handler.
messaging.onMessage((payload) => {
  console.log('Message received. ', payload);
  // ...
});

當您的 Web 應用程序在後台時處理消息

應用程序在後台時收到的所有消息都會觸發瀏覽器中的顯示通知。您可以在來自應用服務器的發送請求中或使用客戶端上的 Service Worker 邏輯指定此通知的選項,例如標題或單擊操作。

在發送請求中設置通知選項

對於從應用服務器發送的通知消息,在FCM的JavaScript API支持fcm_options.link關鍵。通常,這會設置為您的 Web 應用程序中的一個頁面:

https://fcm.googleapis.com//v1/projects/<YOUR-PROJECT-ID>/messages:send
Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: bearer <YOUR-ACCESS-TOKEN>

{
  "message": {
    "topic": "matchday",
    "notification": {
      "title": "Background Message Title",
      "body": "Background message body"
    },
    "webpush": {
      "fcm_options": {
        "link": "https://dummypage.com"
      }
    }
  }
}

如果鏈接值指向已在瀏覽器選項卡中打開的頁面,則單擊通知會將該選項卡置於前台。如果該頁面尚未打開,則單擊通知會在新選項卡中打開該頁面。

由於數據消息不支持fcm_options.link ,建議您通知有效載荷添加到所有數據信息。或者,您可以使用 Service Worker 處理通知。

對於通知和數據消息之間的差異的解釋,請參見消息類型

在 Service Worker 中設置通知選項

對於數據消息,您可以在 Service Worker 中設置通知選項。首先,在 Service Worker 中初始化您的應用程序:

網頁版 9

import { initializeApp } from "firebase/app";
import { getMessaging } from "firebase/messaging/sw";

// Initialize the Firebase app in the service worker by passing in
// your app's Firebase config object.
// https://firebase.google.com/docs/web/setup#config-object
const firebaseApp = initializeApp({
  apiKey: 'api-key',
  authDomain: 'project-id.firebaseapp.com',
  databaseURL: 'https://project-id.firebaseio.com',
  projectId: 'project-id',
  storageBucket: 'project-id.appspot.com',
  messagingSenderId: 'sender-id',
  appId: 'app-id',
  measurementId: 'G-measurement-id',
});

// Retrieve an instance of Firebase Messaging so that it can handle background
// messages.
const messaging = getMessaging(firebaseApp);

網頁版 8

// Give the service worker access to Firebase Messaging.
// Note that you can only use Firebase Messaging here. Other Firebase libraries
// are not available in the service worker.
importScripts('https://www.gstatic.com/firebasejs/8.10.0/firebase-app.js');
importScripts('https://www.gstatic.com/firebasejs/8.10.0/firebase-messaging.js');

// Initialize the Firebase app in the service worker by passing in
// your app's Firebase config object.
// https://firebase.google.com/docs/web/setup#config-object
firebase.initializeApp({
  apiKey: 'api-key',
  authDomain: 'project-id.firebaseapp.com',
  databaseURL: 'https://project-id.firebaseio.com',
  projectId: 'project-id',
  storageBucket: 'project-id.appspot.com',
  messagingSenderId: 'sender-id',
  appId: 'app-id',
  measurementId: 'G-measurement-id',
});

// Retrieve an instance of Firebase Messaging so that it can handle background
// messages.
const messaging = firebase.messaging();

設置選項,呼叫onBackgroundMessagefirebase-messaging-sw.js 。在這個例子中,我們創建了一個帶有標題、正文和圖標字段的通知。

網頁版 9

import { getMessaging } from "firebase/messaging";
import { onBackgroundMessage } from "firebase/messaging/sw";

const messaging = getMessaging();
onBackgroundMessage(messaging, (payload) => {
  console.log('[firebase-messaging-sw.js] Received background message ', payload);
  // Customize notification here
  const notificationTitle = 'Background Message Title';
  const notificationOptions = {
    body: 'Background Message body.',
    icon: '/firebase-logo.png'
  };

  self.registration.showNotification(notificationTitle,
    notificationOptions);
});

網頁版 8

messaging.onBackgroundMessage((payload) => {
  console.log('[firebase-messaging-sw.js] Received background message ', payload);
  // Customize notification here
  const notificationTitle = 'Background Message Title';
  const notificationOptions = {
    body: 'Background Message body.',
    icon: '/firebase-logo.png'
  };

  self.registration.showNotification(notificationTitle,
    notificationOptions);
});

構建發送請求

你,無論是通過訂閱客戶端應用程序實例在客戶端或通過主題創建主題後服務器API ,你可以發送郵件到的話題。如果這是您第一次建立發送請求FCM,請參閱指導您的服務器環境和FCM的重要背景和設置信息。

在後端的發送邏輯中,指定所需的主題名稱,如下所示:

節點.js

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
const topic = 'highScores';

const message = {
  data: {
    score: '850',
    time: '2:45'
  },
  topic: topic
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the provided topic.
getMessaging().send(message)
  .then((response) => {
    // Response is a message ID string.
    console.log('Successfully sent message:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error sending message:', error);
  });

爪哇

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
String topic = "highScores";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
Message message = Message.builder()
    .putData("score", "850")
    .putData("time", "2:45")
    .setTopic(topic)
    .build();

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
String response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().send(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
System.out.println("Successfully sent message: " + response);

Python

# The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
topic = 'highScores'

# See documentation on defining a message payload.
message = messaging.Message(
    data={
        'score': '850',
        'time': '2:45',
    },
    topic=topic,
)

# Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
response = messaging.send(message)
# Response is a message ID string.
print('Successfully sent message:', response)

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
topic := "highScores"

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
message := &messaging.Message{
	Data: map[string]string{
		"score": "850",
		"time":  "2:45",
	},
	Topic: topic,
}

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
response, err := client.Send(ctx, message)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// Response is a message ID string.
fmt.Println("Successfully sent message:", response)

C#

// The topic name can be optionally prefixed with "/topics/".
var topic = "highScores";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
var message = new Message()
{
    Data = new Dictionary<string, string>()
    {
        { "score", "850" },
        { "time", "2:45" },
    },
    Topic = topic,
};

// Send a message to the devices subscribed to the provided topic.
string response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.SendAsync(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
Console.WriteLine("Successfully sent message: " + response);

休息

POST https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA
{
  "message":{
    "topic" : "foo-bar",
    "notification" : {
      "body" : "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title" : "FCM Message"
      }
   }
}

捲曲命令:

curl -X POST -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{
  "message": {
    "topic" : "foo-bar",
    "notification": {
      "body": "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title": "FCM Message"
    }
  }
}' https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

將消息發送到主題的組合,指定一個條件,這是一個布爾表達式,指定目標的主題。例如,下面的條件將郵件發送到訂閱了設備TopicA並且或者TopicBTopicC

"'TopicA' in topics && ('TopicB' in topics || 'TopicC' in topics)"

FCM 首先計算括號中的任何條件,然後從左到右計算表達式。在上面的表達式中,訂閱任何單個主題的用戶都不會收到消息。同樣的,誰不訂閱用戶TopicA沒有收到消息。這些組合確實收到它:

  • TopicATopicB
  • TopicATopicC

您最多可以在條件表達式中包含五個主題。

發送到條件:

節點.js

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
const condition = '\'stock-GOOG\' in topics || \'industry-tech\' in topics';

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
const message = {
  notification: {
    title: '$FooCorp up 1.43% on the day',
    body: '$FooCorp gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.'
  },
  condition: condition
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
getMessaging().send(message)
  .then((response) => {
    // Response is a message ID string.
    console.log('Successfully sent message:', response);
  })
  .catch((error) => {
    console.log('Error sending message:', error);
  });

爪哇

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
String condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
Message message = Message.builder()
    .setNotification(Notification.builder()
        .setTitle("$GOOG up 1.43% on the day")
        .setBody("$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.")
        .build())
    .setCondition(condition)
    .build();

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
String response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().send(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
System.out.println("Successfully sent message: " + response);

Python

# Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
# to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics"

# See documentation on defining a message payload.
message = messaging.Message(
    notification=messaging.Notification(
        title='$GOOG up 1.43% on the day',
        body='$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.',
    ),
    condition=condition,
)

# Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
# specified by the provided condition.
response = messaging.send(message)
# Response is a message ID string.
print('Successfully sent message:', response)

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
condition := "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics"

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
message := &messaging.Message{
	Data: map[string]string{
		"score": "850",
		"time":  "2:45",
	},
	Condition: condition,
}

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
response, err := client.Send(ctx, message)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln(err)
}
// Response is a message ID string.
fmt.Println("Successfully sent message:", response)

C#

// Define a condition which will send to devices which are subscribed
// to either the Google stock or the tech industry topics.
var condition = "'stock-GOOG' in topics || 'industry-tech' in topics";

// See documentation on defining a message payload.
var message = new Message()
{
    Notification = new Notification()
    {
        Title = "$GOOG up 1.43% on the day",
        Body = "$GOOG gained 11.80 points to close at 835.67, up 1.43% on the day.",
    },
    Condition = condition,
};

// Send a message to devices subscribed to the combination of topics
// specified by the provided condition.
string response = await FirebaseMessaging.DefaultInstance.SendAsync(message);
// Response is a message ID string.
Console.WriteLine("Successfully sent message: " + response);

休息

POST https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA
{
   "message":{
    "condition": "'dogs' in topics || 'cats' in topics",
    "notification" : {
      "body" : "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
      "title" : "FCM Message",
    }
  }
}

捲曲命令:

curl -X POST -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.ElqKBGN2Ri_Uz...HnS_uNreA" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{
  "notification": {
    "title": "FCM Message",
    "body": "This is a Firebase Cloud Messaging Topic Message!",
  },
  "condition": "'dogs' in topics || 'cats' in topics"
}' https://fcm.googleapis.com/v1/projects/myproject-b5ae1/messages:send HTTP/1.1

下一步

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