Catch up on everthing we announced at this year's Firebase Summit. Learn more

在 Android 系统中使用机器学习套件为图片添加标签

利用机器学习套件,您可以使用设备端模型或云端模型来标记图片中识别出的对象。如需了解每种方法的优势,请参阅概览

准备工作

  1. 将 Firebase 添加到您的 Android 项目(如果尚未添加)。
  2. 将 Android 版机器学习套件库的依赖项添加到您的模块(应用级)Gradle 文件(通常为 app/build.gradle):
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply plugin: 'com.google.gms.google-services'
    
    dependencies {
      // ...
    
      implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-ml-vision:24.0.3'
      implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-ml-vision-image-label-model:20.0.1'
    }
    
  3. 可选但建议执行的操作:如果您使用设备端 API,请将您的应用配置为当用户从 Play 商店安装您的应用后,系统自动将机器学习模型下载到设备。

    为此,请将以下声明添加到您的应用的 AndroidManifest.xml 文件:

    <application ...>
      ...
      <meta-data
          android:name="com.google.firebase.ml.vision.DEPENDENCIES"
          android:value="label" />
      <!-- To use multiple models: android:value="label,model2,model3" -->
    </application>
    
    如果您未启用安装时模型下载,系统将在您首次运行设备上的检测器时下载模型。您在下载完毕之前提出的请求不会产生任何结果。
  4. 如果您想使用云端模型,且尚未为项目启用云端 API,请在此完成以下操作:

    1. 打开 Firebase 控制台的机器学习套件 API 页面
    2. 如果您尚未将项目升级到 Blaze 定价方案,请点击升级以执行此操作。(只有在您的项目未采用 Blaze 方案时,系统才会提示您进行升级。)

      只有 Blaze 级项目才能使用基于 Cloud 的 API。

    3. 如果尚未启用基于 Cloud 的 API,请点击启用基于 Cloud 的 API

    如果您只想使用设备端模型,则可以跳过此步骤。

现在,您就可以使用设备端模型或云端模型为图片加标签了。

1. 准备输入图片

基于图片创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象。使用 Bitmap 或 JPEG 格式的 media.Image(如果您使用 Camera2 API)时,图片标记器的运行速度最快;建议您尽量使用这两种格式的图片。

  • 如需基于 media.Image 对象创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象(例如从设备的相机捕获图片时),请将 media.Image 对象和图片的旋转角度传递给 FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage()

    如果您使用了 CameraX 库,OnImageCapturedListenerImageAnalysis.Analyzer 类会为您计算旋转角度值,因此您只需在调用 FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage() 之前将旋转角度转换为机器学习套件的 ROTATION_ 常量之一:

    Java

    private class YourAnalyzer implements ImageAnalysis.Analyzer {
    
        private int degreesToFirebaseRotation(int degrees) {
            switch (degrees) {
                case 0:
                    return FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0;
                case 90:
                    return FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_90;
                case 180:
                    return FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_180;
                case 270:
                    return FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_270;
                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                            "Rotation must be 0, 90, 180, or 270.");
            }
        }
    
        @Override
        public void analyze(ImageProxy imageProxy, int degrees) {
            if (imageProxy == null || imageProxy.getImage() == null) {
                return;
            }
            Image mediaImage = imageProxy.getImage();
            int rotation = degreesToFirebaseRotation(degrees);
            FirebaseVisionImage image =
                    FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage(mediaImage, rotation);
            // Pass image to an ML Kit Vision API
            // ...
        }
    }
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    private class YourImageAnalyzer : ImageAnalysis.Analyzer {
        private fun degreesToFirebaseRotation(degrees: Int): Int = when(degrees) {
            0 -> FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0
            90 -> FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_90
            180 -> FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_180
            270 -> FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_270
            else -> throw Exception("Rotation must be 0, 90, 180, or 270.")
        }
    
        override fun analyze(imageProxy: ImageProxy?, degrees: Int) {
            val mediaImage = imageProxy?.image
            val imageRotation = degreesToFirebaseRotation(degrees)
            if (mediaImage != null) {
                val image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage(mediaImage, imageRotation)
                // Pass image to an ML Kit Vision API
                // ...
            }
        }
    }
    

    如果您没有使用可提供图片旋转角度的相机库,可以根据设备的旋转角度和设备中相机传感器的朝向来计算旋转角度:

    Java

    private static final SparseIntArray ORIENTATIONS = new SparseIntArray();
    static {
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_0, 90);
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_90, 0);
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_180, 270);
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_270, 180);
    }
    
    /**
     * Get the angle by which an image must be rotated given the device's current
     * orientation.
     */
    @RequiresApi(api = Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP)
    private int getRotationCompensation(String cameraId, Activity activity, Context context)
            throws CameraAccessException {
        // Get the device's current rotation relative to its "native" orientation.
        // Then, from the ORIENTATIONS table, look up the angle the image must be
        // rotated to compensate for the device's rotation.
        int deviceRotation = activity.getWindowManager().getDefaultDisplay().getRotation();
        int rotationCompensation = ORIENTATIONS.get(deviceRotation);
    
        // On most devices, the sensor orientation is 90 degrees, but for some
        // devices it is 270 degrees. For devices with a sensor orientation of
        // 270, rotate the image an additional 180 ((270 + 270) % 360) degrees.
        CameraManager cameraManager = (CameraManager) context.getSystemService(CAMERA_SERVICE);
        int sensorOrientation = cameraManager
                .getCameraCharacteristics(cameraId)
                .get(CameraCharacteristics.SENSOR_ORIENTATION);
        rotationCompensation = (rotationCompensation + sensorOrientation + 270) % 360;
    
        // Return the corresponding FirebaseVisionImageMetadata rotation value.
        int result;
        switch (rotationCompensation) {
            case 0:
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0;
                break;
            case 90:
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_90;
                break;
            case 180:
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_180;
                break;
            case 270:
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_270;
                break;
            default:
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0;
                Log.e(TAG, "Bad rotation value: " + rotationCompensation);
        }
        return result;
    }

    Kotlin+KTX

    private val ORIENTATIONS = SparseIntArray()
    
    init {
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_0, 90)
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_90, 0)
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_180, 270)
        ORIENTATIONS.append(Surface.ROTATION_270, 180)
    }
    /**
     * Get the angle by which an image must be rotated given the device's current
     * orientation.
     */
    @RequiresApi(api = Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP)
    @Throws(CameraAccessException::class)
    private fun getRotationCompensation(cameraId: String, activity: Activity, context: Context): Int {
        // Get the device's current rotation relative to its "native" orientation.
        // Then, from the ORIENTATIONS table, look up the angle the image must be
        // rotated to compensate for the device's rotation.
        val deviceRotation = activity.windowManager.defaultDisplay.rotation
        var rotationCompensation = ORIENTATIONS.get(deviceRotation)
    
        // On most devices, the sensor orientation is 90 degrees, but for some
        // devices it is 270 degrees. For devices with a sensor orientation of
        // 270, rotate the image an additional 180 ((270 + 270) % 360) degrees.
        val cameraManager = context.getSystemService(CAMERA_SERVICE) as CameraManager
        val sensorOrientation = cameraManager
                .getCameraCharacteristics(cameraId)
                .get(CameraCharacteristics.SENSOR_ORIENTATION)!!
        rotationCompensation = (rotationCompensation + sensorOrientation + 270) % 360
    
        // Return the corresponding FirebaseVisionImageMetadata rotation value.
        val result: Int
        when (rotationCompensation) {
            0 -> result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0
            90 -> result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_90
            180 -> result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_180
            270 -> result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_270
            else -> {
                result = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.ROTATION_0
                Log.e(TAG, "Bad rotation value: $rotationCompensation")
            }
        }
        return result
    }

    然后,将 media.Image 对象及旋转角度值传递给 FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage()

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage(mediaImage, rotation);

    Kotlin+KTX

    val image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromMediaImage(mediaImage, rotation)
  • 如需基于文件 URI 创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象,请将应用上下文和文件 URI 传递给 FirebaseVisionImage.fromFilePath()。如果您使用 ACTION_GET_CONTENT Intent 提示用户从图库应用中选择图片,则这一操作非常有用。

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImage image;
    try {
        image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromFilePath(context, uri);
    } catch (IOException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
    }

    Kotlin+KTX

    val image: FirebaseVisionImage
    try {
        image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromFilePath(context, uri)
    } catch (e: IOException) {
        e.printStackTrace()
    }
  • 如需基于 ByteBuffer 或字节数组创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象,请先按上述 media.Image 输入的说明计算图片旋转角度。

    然后,创建一个包含图片的高度、宽度、颜色编码格式和旋转角度的 FirebaseVisionImageMetadata 对象:

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImageMetadata metadata = new FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.Builder()
            .setWidth(480)   // 480x360 is typically sufficient for
            .setHeight(360)  // image recognition
            .setFormat(FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.IMAGE_FORMAT_NV21)
            .setRotation(rotation)
            .build();

    Kotlin+KTX

    val metadata = FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.Builder()
            .setWidth(480) // 480x360 is typically sufficient for
            .setHeight(360) // image recognition
            .setFormat(FirebaseVisionImageMetadata.IMAGE_FORMAT_NV21)
            .setRotation(rotation)
            .build()

    使用缓冲区或数组以及元数据对象来创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象:

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromByteBuffer(buffer, metadata);
    // Or: FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromByteArray(byteArray, metadata);

    Kotlin+KTX

    val image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromByteBuffer(buffer, metadata)
    // Or: val image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromByteArray(byteArray, metadata)
  • 如需基于 Bitmap 对象创建 FirebaseVisionImage 对象,请执行以下操作:

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromBitmap(bitmap);

    Kotlin+KTX

    val image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromBitmap(bitmap)
    Bitmap 对象表示的图片必须保持竖直,不需要额外的旋转。

2.配置并运行图片标记器

如需给图片中的对象加标签,请将 FirebaseVisionImage 对象传递给 FirebaseVisionImageLabelerprocessImage 方法。

  1. 首先,获取 FirebaseVisionImageLabeler 的一个实例。

    如果您想要使用设备端图片标记器,请运行以下代码:

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImageLabeler labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance()
        .getOnDeviceImageLabeler();
    
    // Or, to set the minimum confidence required:
    // FirebaseVisionOnDeviceImageLabelerOptions options =
    //     new FirebaseVisionOnDeviceImageLabelerOptions.Builder()
    //         .setConfidenceThreshold(0.7f)
    //         .build();
    // FirebaseVisionImageLabeler labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance()
    //     .getOnDeviceImageLabeler(options);
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    val labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getOnDeviceImageLabeler()
    
    // Or, to set the minimum confidence required:
    // val options = FirebaseVisionOnDeviceImageLabelerOptions.Builder()
    //     .setConfidenceThreshold(0.7f)
    //     .build()
    // val labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getOnDeviceImageLabeler(options)
    

    如果您想要使用云端图片标记器,请运行以下代码:

    Java

    FirebaseVisionImageLabeler labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance()
        .getCloudImageLabeler();
    
    // Or, to set the minimum confidence required:
    // FirebaseVisionCloudImageLabelerOptions options =
    //     new FirebaseVisionCloudImageLabelerOptions.Builder()
    //         .setConfidenceThreshold(0.7f)
    //         .build();
    // FirebaseVisionImageLabeler labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance()
    //     .getCloudImageLabeler(options);
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    val labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getCloudImageLabeler()
    
    // Or, to set the minimum confidence required:
    // val options = FirebaseVisionCloudImageLabelerOptions.Builder()
    //     .setConfidenceThreshold(0.7f)
    //     .build()
    // val labeler = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getCloudImageLabeler(options)
    

  2. 然后,将图片传递给 processImage() 方法:

    Java

    labeler.processImage(image)
        .addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<List<FirebaseVisionImageLabel>>() {
          @Override
          public void onSuccess(List<FirebaseVisionImageLabel> labels) {
            // Task completed successfully
            // ...
          }
        })
        .addOnFailureListener(new OnFailureListener() {
          @Override
          public void onFailure(@NonNull Exception e) {
            // Task failed with an exception
            // ...
          }
        });
    

    Kotlin+KTX

    labeler.processImage(image)
        .addOnSuccessListener { labels ->
          // Task completed successfully
          // ...
        }
        .addOnFailureListener { e ->
          // Task failed with an exception
          // ...
        }
    

3.获取已加标签的对象的相关信息

如果为图片添加标签的操作成功,系统会向成功监听器传递一组 FirebaseVisionImageLabel 对象。每个 FirebaseVisionImageLabel 对象代表在图片中加了标签的某个事物。对于每个标签,您可以获取标签的文本说明、其知识图谱实体 ID(如果有)以及匹配的置信度分数。例如:

Java

for (FirebaseVisionImageLabel label: labels) {
  String text = label.getText();
  String entityId = label.getEntityId();
  float confidence = label.getConfidence();
}

Kotlin+KTX

for (label in labels) {
  val text = label.text
  val entityId = label.entityId
  val confidence = label.confidence
}

提高实时性能的相关提示

如果要在实时应用中为图片加标签,请遵循以下准则以实现最佳帧速率:

  • 限制图片标记器的调用次数。如果在图片标记器运行时有新的视频帧可用,请丢弃该帧。
  • 如果要将图片标记器的输出作为图形叠加在输入图片上,请先从机器学习套件获取结果,然后在一个步骤中完成图片的渲染和叠加。采用这一方法,每个输入帧只需在显示表面渲染一次。
  • 如果您使用 Camera2 API,请以 ImageFormat.YUV_420_888 格式捕获图片。

    如果您使用旧版 Camera API,请以 ImageFormat.NV21 格式捕获图片。

后续步骤