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Perform simple and compound queries in Cloud Firestore

Cloud Firestore provides powerful query functionality for specifying which documents you want to retrieve from a collection or collection group. These queries can also be used with either get() or addSnapshotListener(), as described in Get Data and Get Realtime Updates.

Example data

To get started, write some data about cities so we can look at different ways to read it back:

Web
var citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

citiesRef.doc("SF").set({
    name: "San Francisco", state: "CA", country: "USA",
    capital: false, population: 860000,
    regions: ["west_coast", "norcal"] });
citiesRef.doc("LA").set({
    name: "Los Angeles", state: "CA", country: "USA",
    capital: false, population: 3900000,
    regions: ["west_coast", "socal"] });
citiesRef.doc("DC").set({
    name: "Washington, D.C.", state: null, country: "USA",
    capital: true, population: 680000,
    regions: ["east_coast"] });
citiesRef.doc("TOK").set({
    name: "Tokyo", state: null, country: "Japan",
    capital: true, population: 9000000,
    regions: ["kanto", "honshu"] });
citiesRef.doc("BJ").set({
    name: "Beijing", state: null, country: "China",
    capital: true, population: 21500000,
    regions: ["jingjinji", "hebei"] });
Swift
let citiesRef = db.collection("cities")

citiesRef.document("SF").setData([
    "name": "San Francisco",
    "state": "CA",
    "country": "USA",
    "capital": false,
    "population": 860000,
    "regions": ["west_coast", "norcal"]
    ])
citiesRef.document("LA").setData([
    "name": "Los Angeles",
    "state": "CA",
    "country": "USA",
    "capital": false,
    "population": 3900000,
    "regions": ["west_coast", "socal"]
    ])
citiesRef.document("DC").setData([
    "name": "Washington D.C.",
    "country": "USA",
    "capital": true,
    "population": 680000,
    "regions": ["east_coast"]
    ])
citiesRef.document("TOK").setData([
    "name": "Tokyo",
    "country": "Japan",
    "capital": true,
    "population": 9000000,
    "regions": ["kanto", "honshu"]
    ])
citiesRef.document("BJ").setData([
    "name": "Beijing",
    "country": "China",
    "capital": true,
    "population": 21500000,
    "regions": ["jingjinji", "hebei"]
    ])
Objective-C
FIRCollectionReference *citiesRef = [self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"];
[[citiesRef documentWithPath:@"SF"] setData:@{
  @"name": @"San Francisco",
  @"state": @"CA",
  @"country": @"USA",
  @"capital": @(NO),
  @"population": @860000,
  @"regions": @[@"west_coast", @"norcal"]
}];
[[citiesRef documentWithPath:@"LA"] setData:@{
  @"name": @"Los Angeles",
  @"state": @"CA",
  @"country": @"USA",
  @"capital": @(NO),
  @"population": @3900000,
  @"regions": @[@"west_coast", @"socal"]
}];
[[citiesRef documentWithPath:@"DC"] setData:@{
  @"name": @"Washington D.C.",
  @"country": @"USA",
  @"capital": @(YES),
  @"population": @680000,
  @"regions": @[@"east_coast"]
}];
[[citiesRef documentWithPath:@"TOK"] setData:@{
  @"name": @"Tokyo",
  @"country": @"Japan",
  @"capital": @(YES),
  @"population": @9000000,
  @"regions": @[@"kanto", @"honshu"]
}];
[[citiesRef documentWithPath:@"BJ"] setData:@{
  @"name": @"Beijing",
  @"country": @"China",
  @"capital": @(YES),
  @"population": @21500000,
  @"regions": @[@"jingjinji", @"hebei"]
}];
  
Java
CollectionReference cities = db.collection("cities");

Map<String, Object> data1 = new HashMap<>();
data1.put("name", "San Francisco");
data1.put("state", "CA");
data1.put("country", "USA");
data1.put("capital", false);
data1.put("population", 860000);
data1.put("regions", Arrays.asList("west_coast", "norcal"));
cities.document("SF").set(data1);

Map<String, Object> data2 = new HashMap<>();
data2.put("name", "Los Angeles");
data2.put("state", "CA");
data2.put("country", "USA");
data2.put("capital", false);
data2.put("population", 3900000);
data2.put("regions", Arrays.asList("west_coast", "socal"));
cities.document("LA").set(data2);

Map<String, Object> data3 = new HashMap<>();
data3.put("name", "Washington D.C.");
data3.put("state", null);
data3.put("country", "USA");
data3.put("capital", true);
data3.put("population", 680000);
data3.put("regions", Arrays.asList("east_coast"));
cities.document("DC").set(data3);

Map<String, Object> data4 = new HashMap<>();
data4.put("name", "Tokyo");
data4.put("state", null);
data4.put("country", "Japan");
data4.put("capital", true);
data4.put("population", 9000000);
data4.put("regions", Arrays.asList("kanto", "honshu"));
cities.document("TOK").set(data4);

Map<String, Object> data5 = new HashMap<>();
data5.put("name", "Beijing");
data5.put("state", null);
data5.put("country", "China");
data5.put("capital", true);
data5.put("population", 21500000);
data5.put("regions", Arrays.asList("jingjinji", "hebei"));
cities.document("BJ").set(data5);
Kotlin
val cities = db.collection("cities")

val data1 = HashMap<String, Any>()
data1["name"] = "San Francisco"
data1["state"] = "CA"
data1["country"] = "USA"
data1["capital"] = false
data1["population"] = 860000
data1["regions"] = listOf("west_coast", "norcal")
cities.document("SF").set(data1)

val data2 = HashMap<String, Any>()
data2["name"] = "Los Angeles"
data2["state"] = "CA"
data2["country"] = "USA"
data2["capital"] = false
data2["population"] = 3900000
data2["regions"] = listOf("west_coast", "socal")
cities.document("LA").set(data2)

val data3 = HashMap<String, Any?>()
data3["name"] = "Washington D.C."
data3["state"] = null
data3["country"] = "USA"
data3["capital"] = true
data3["population"] = 680000
data3["regions"] = listOf("east_coast")
cities.document("DC").set(data3)

val data4 = HashMap<String, Any?>()
data4["name"] = "Tokyo"
data4["state"] = null
data4["country"] = "Japan"
data4["capital"] = true
data4["population"] = 9000000
data4["regions"] = listOf("kanto", "honshu")
cities.document("TOK").set(data4)

val data5 = HashMap<String, Any?>()
data5["name"] = "Beijing"
data5["state"] = null
data5["country"] = "China"
data5["capital"] = true
data5["population"] = 21500000
data5["regions"] = listOf("jingjinji", "hebei")
cities.document("BJ").set(data5)
Java
CollectionReference cities = db.collection("cities");
List<ApiFuture<WriteResult>> futures = new ArrayList<>();
futures.add(cities.document("SF").set(new City("San Francisco", "CA", "USA", false, 860000L,
    Arrays.asList("west_coast", "norcal"))));
futures.add(cities.document("LA").set(new City("Los Angeles", "CA", "USA", false, 3900000L,
    Arrays.asList("west_coast", "socal"))));
futures.add(cities.document("DC").set(new City("Washington D.C.", null, "USA", true, 680000L,
    Arrays.asList("east_coast"))));
futures.add(cities.document("TOK").set(new City("Tokyo", null, "Japan", true, 9000000L,
    Arrays.asList("kanto", "honshu"))));
futures.add(cities.document("BJ").set(new City("Beijing", null, "China", true, 21500000L,
    Arrays.asList("jingjinji", "hebei"))));
// (optional) block on documents successfully added
ApiFutures.allAsList(futures).get();
Python
class City(object):
    def __init__(self, name, state, country, capital=False, population=0,
                 regions=[]):
        self.name = name
        self.state = state
        self.country = country
        self.capital = capital
        self.population = population
        self.regions = regions

    @staticmethod
    def from_dict(source):
        # ...

    def to_dict(self):
        # ...

    def __repr__(self):
        return(
            u'City(name={}, country={}, population={}, capital={}, regions={})'
            .format(self.name, self.country, self.population, self.capital,
                    self.regions))

cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
cities_ref.document(u'SF').set(
    City(u'San Francisco', u'CA', u'USA', False, 860000,
         [u'west_coast', u'norcal']).to_dict())
cities_ref.document(u'LA').set(
    City(u'Los Angeles', u'CA', u'USA', False, 3900000,
         [u'west_coast', u'socal']).to_dict())
cities_ref.document(u'DC').set(
    City(u'Washington D.C.', None, u'USA', True, 680000,
         [u'east_coast']).to_dict())
cities_ref.document(u'TOK').set(
    City(u'Tokyo', None, u'Japan', True, 9000000,
         [u'kanto', u'honshu']).to_dict())
cities_ref.document(u'BJ').set(
    City(u'Beijing', None, u'China', True, 21500000, [u'hebei']).to_dict())
Node.js
var citiesRef = db.collection('cities');

var setSf = citiesRef.doc('SF').set({
  name: 'San Francisco', state: 'CA', country: 'USA',
  capital: false, population: 860000,
  regions: ['west_coast', 'norcal']
});
var setLa = citiesRef.doc('LA').set({
  name: 'Los Angeles', state: 'CA', country: 'USA',
  capital: false, population: 3900000,
  regions: ['west_coast', 'socal']
});
var setDc = citiesRef.doc('DC').set({
  name: 'Washington, D.C.', state: null, country: 'USA',
  capital: true, population: 680000,
  regions: ['east_coast']
});
var setTok = citiesRef.doc('TOK').set({
  name: 'Tokyo', state: null, country: 'Japan',
  capital: true, population: 9000000,
  regions: ['kanto', 'honshu']
});
var setBj = citiesRef.doc('BJ').set({
  name: 'Beijing', state: null, country: 'China',
  capital: true, population: 21500000,
  regions: ['jingjinji', 'hebei']
});
Go
cities := []struct {
	id string
	c  City
}{
	{
		id: "SF",
		c: City{Name: "San Francisco", State: "CA", Country: "USA",
			Capital: false, Population: 860000,
			Regions: []string{"west_coast", "norcal"}},
	},
	{
		id: "LA",
		c: City{Name: "Los Angeles", State: "CA", Country: "USA",
			Capital: false, Population: 3900000,
			Regions: []string{"west_coast", "socal"}},
	},
	{
		id: "DC",
		c: City{Name: "Washington D.C.", Country: "USA",
			Capital: false, Population: 680000,
			Regions: []string{"east_coast"}},
	},
	{
		id: "TOK",
		c: City{Name: "Tokyo", Country: "Japan",
			Capital: true, Population: 9000000,
			Regions: []string{"kanto", "honshu"}},
	},
	{
		id: "BJ",
		c: City{Name: "Beijing", Country: "China",
			Capital: true, Population: 21500000,
			Regions: []string{"jingjinji", "hebei"}},
	},
}
for _, c := range cities {
	if _, err := client.Collection("cities").Doc(c.id).Set(ctx, c.c); err != nil {
		return err
	}
}
PHP
$citiesRef = $db->collection('cities');
$citiesRef->document('SF')->set([
    'name' => 'San Francisco',
    'state' => 'CA',
    'country' => 'USA',
    'capital' => false,
    'population' => 860000,
    'regions' => ['west_coast', 'norcal']
]);
$citiesRef->document('LA')->set([
    'name' => 'Los Angeles',
    'state' => 'CA',
    'country' => 'USA',
    'capital' => false,
    'population' => 3900000,
    'regions' => ['west_coast', 'socal']
]);
$citiesRef->document('DC')->set([
    'name' => 'Washington D.C.',
    'state' => null,
    'country' => 'USA',
    'capital' => true,
    'population' => 680000,
    'regions' => ['east_coast']
]);
$citiesRef->document('TOK')->set([
    'name' => 'Tokyo',
    'state' => null,
    'country' => 'Japan',
    'capital' => true,
    'population' => 9000000,
    'regions' => ['kanto', 'honshu']
]);
$citiesRef->document('BJ')->set([
    'name' => 'Beijing',
    'state' => null,
    'country' => 'China',
    'capital' => true,
    'population' => 21500000,
    'regions' => ['jingjinji', 'hebei']
]);
printf('Added example cities data to the cities collection.' . PHP_EOL);
C#
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.Collection("cities");
await citiesRef.Document("SF").SetAsync(new Dictionary<string, object>(){
    { "Name", "San Francisco" },
    { "State", "CA" },
    { "Country", "USA" },
    { "Capital", false },
    { "Population", 860000 },
    { "Regions", new ArrayList{"west_coast", "norcal"} }
});
await citiesRef.Document("LA").SetAsync(new Dictionary<string, object>(){
    { "Name", "Los Angeles" },
    { "State", "CA" },
    { "Country", "USA" },
    { "Capital", false },
    { "Population", 3900000 },
    { "Regions", new ArrayList{"west_coast", "socal"} }
});
await citiesRef.Document("DC").SetAsync(new Dictionary<string, object>(){
    { "Name", "Washington D.C." },
    { "State", null },
    { "Country", "USA" },
    { "Capital", true },
    { "Population", 680000 },
    { "Regions", new ArrayList{"east_coast"} }
});
await citiesRef.Document("TOK").SetAsync(new Dictionary<string, object>(){
    { "Name", "Tokyo" },
    { "State", null },
    { "Country", "Japan" },
    { "Capital", true },
    { "Population", 9000000 },
    { "Regions", new ArrayList{"kanto", "honshu"} }
});
await citiesRef.Document("BJ").SetAsync(new Dictionary<string, object>(){
    { "Name", "Beijing" },
    { "State", null },
    { "Country", "China" },
    { "Capital", true },
    { "Population", 21500000 },
    { "Regions", new ArrayList{"jingjinji", "hebei"} }
});
Console.WriteLine("Added example cities data to the cities collection.");
Ruby
cities_ref = firestore.col "cities"
cities_ref.doc("SF").set(
  name:       "San Francisco",
  state:      "CA",
  country:    "USA",
  capital:    false,
  population: 860_000
)
cities_ref.doc("LA").set(
  name:       "Los Angeles",
  state:      "CA",
  country:    "USA",
  capital:    false,
  population: 3_900_000
)
cities_ref.doc("DC").set(
  name:       "Washington D.C.",
  state:      nil,
  country:    "USA",
  capital:    true,
  population: 680_000
)
cities_ref.doc("TOK").set(
  name:       "Tokyo",
  state:      nil,
  country:    "Japan",
  capital:    true,
  population: 9_000_000
)
cities_ref.doc("BJ").set(
  name:       "Beijing",
  state:      nil,
  country:    "China",
  capital:    true,
  population: 21_500_000
)

Simple queries

The following query returns all cities with state CA:

Web
// Create a reference to the cities collection
var citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

// Create a query against the collection.
var query = citiesRef.where("state", "==", "CA");
Swift
// Create a reference to the cities collection
let citiesRef = db.collection("cities")

// Create a query against the collection.
let query = citiesRef.whereField("state", isEqualTo: "CA")
Objective-C
// Create a reference to the cities collection
FIRCollectionReference *citiesRef = [self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"];
// Create a query against the collection.
FIRQuery *query = [citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isEqualTo:@"CA"];
  
Java
// Create a reference to the cities collection
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

// Create a query against the collection.
Query query = citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA");
Kotlin
// Create a reference to the cities collection
val citiesRef = db.collection("cities")

// Create a query against the collection.
val query = citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
Java
// Create a reference to the cities collection
CollectionReference cities = db.collection("cities");
// Create a query against the collection.
Query query = cities.whereEqualTo("state", "CA");
// retrieve  query results asynchronously using query.get()
ApiFuture<QuerySnapshot> querySnapshot = query.get();

for (DocumentSnapshot document : querySnapshot.get().getDocuments()) {
  System.out.println(document.getId());
}
Python
# Create a reference to the cities collection
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')

# Create a query against the collection
query_ref = cities_ref.where(u'state', u'==', u'CA')
Node.js
// Create a reference to the cities collection
var citiesRef = db.collection('cities');

// Create a query against the collection
var queryRef = citiesRef.where('state', '==', 'CA');
Go
query := client.Collection("cities").Where("state", "==", "CA")
PHP
$citiesRef = $db->collection('cities');
$query = $citiesRef->where('state', '=', 'CA');
$snapshot = $query->documents();
foreach ($snapshot as $document) {
    printf('Document %s returned by query state=CA' . PHP_EOL, $document->id());
}
C#
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.Collection("cities");
Query query = citiesRef.WhereEqualTo("State", "CA");
QuerySnapshot querySnapshot = await query.GetSnapshotAsync();
foreach (DocumentSnapshot documentSnapshot in querySnapshot.Documents)
{
    Console.WriteLine("Document {0} returned by query State=CA", documentSnapshot.Id);
}
Ruby
cities_ref = firestore.col "cities"

query = cities_ref.where "state", "=", "CA"

query.get do |city|
  puts "Document #{city.document_id} returned by query state=CA."
end

The following query returns all the capital cities:

Web
var citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

var query = citiesRef.where("capital", "==", true);
Swift
let capitalCities = db.collection("cities").whereField("capital", isEqualTo: true)
Objective-C
FIRQuery *capitalCities =
    [[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] queryWhereField:@"capital" isEqualTo:@YES];
  
Java
Query capitalCities = db.collection("cities").whereEqualTo("capital", true);
Kotlin
val capitalCities = db.collection("cities").whereEqualTo("capital", true)
Java
// Create a reference to the cities collection
CollectionReference cities = db.collection("cities");
// Create a query against the collection.
Query query = cities.whereEqualTo("capital", true);
// retrieve  query results asynchronously using query.get()
ApiFuture<QuerySnapshot> querySnapshot = query.get();

for (DocumentSnapshot document : querySnapshot.get().getDocuments()) {
  System.out.println(document.getId());
}
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')

query = cities_ref.where(u'capital', u'==', True)
Node.js
// Create a reference to the cities collection
var citiesRef = db.collection('cities');

// Create a query against the collection
var queryRef = citiesRef.where('capital', '==', true);
Go
query := client.Collection("cities").Where("capital", "==", true)
PHP
$citiesRef = $db->collection('cities');
$query = $citiesRef->where('capital', '=', true);
$snapshot = $query->documents();
foreach ($snapshot as $document) {
    printf('Document %s returned by query capital=true' . PHP_EOL, $document->id());
}
C#
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.Collection("cities");
Query query = citiesRef.WhereEqualTo("Capital", true);
QuerySnapshot querySnapshot = await query.GetSnapshotAsync();
foreach (DocumentSnapshot documentSnapshot in querySnapshot.Documents)
{
    Console.WriteLine("Document {0} returned by query Capital=true", documentSnapshot.Id);
}
Ruby
cities_ref = firestore.col "cities"

query = cities_ref.where "capital", "=", true

query.get do |city|
  puts "Document #{city.document_id} returned by query capital=true."
end

The where() method takes three parameters: a field to filter on, a comparison operation, and a value. The comparison can be <, <=, ==, >, >=, or array_contains. For iOS, Android, and Java, the comparison operator is explicitly named in the method.

Some example filters:

Web
citiesRef.where("state", "==", "CA")
citiesRef.where("population", "<", 100000)
citiesRef.where("name", ">=", "San Francisco")
Swift
citiesRef.whereField("state", isEqualTo: "CA")
citiesRef.whereField("population", isLessThan: 100000)
citiesRef.whereField("name", isGreaterThanOrEqualTo: "San Francisco")
Objective-C
[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isEqualTo:@"CA"];
[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"population" isLessThan:@100000];
[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"name" isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:@"San Francisco"];
  
Java
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA");
citiesRef.whereLessThan("population", 100000);
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("name", "San Francisco");
Kotlin
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
citiesRef.whereLessThan("population", 100000)
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("name", "San Francisco")
Java
Query stateQuery = cities.whereEqualTo("state", "CA");
Query populationQuery = cities.whereLessThan("population", 1000000L);
Query nameQuery = cities.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("name", "San Francisco");
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')

cities_ref.where(u'state', u'==', u'CA')
cities_ref.where(u'population', u'<', 1000000)
cities_ref.where(u'name', u'>=', u'San Francisco')
Node.js
var stateQuery = citiesRef.where('state', '==', 'CA');
var populationQuery = citiesRef.where('population', '<', 1000000);
var nameQuery = citiesRef.where('name', '>=', 'San Francisco');
Go
countryQuery := cities.Where("state", "==", "CA")
popQuery := cities.Where("population", "<", 1000000)
cityQuery := cities.Where("name", ">=", "San Francisco")
PHP
$stateQuery = $citiesRef->where('state', '=', 'CA');
$populationQuery = $citiesRef->where('population', '>', 1000000);
$nameQuery = $citiesRef->where('name', '>=', 'San Francisco');
C#
Query stateQuery = citiesRef.WhereEqualTo("State", "CA");
Query populationQuery = citiesRef.WhereGreaterThan("Population", 1000000);
Query nameQuery = citiesRef.WhereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("Name", "San Francisco");
Ruby
state_query      = cities_ref.where "state", "=", "CA"
population_query = cities_ref.where "population", ">", 1_000_000
name_query       = cities_ref.where "name", ">=", "San Francisco"

Array membership

You can use the array_contains operator to filter based on array values. For example:

Web
citiesRef.where("regions", "array-contains", "west_coast")
Swift
citiesRef
  .whereField("regions", arrayContains: "west_coast")
Objective-C
[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" arrayContains:@"west_coast"];
  
Java
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

citiesRef.whereArrayContains("regions", "west_coast");
Kotlin
val citiesRef = db.collection("cities")

citiesRef.whereArrayContains("regions", "west_coast")
Java
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.collection("cities");
Query westCoastQuery = citiesRef.whereArrayContains("regions", "west_coast");
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')

query = cities_ref.where(u'regions', u'array_contains', u'west_coast')
Node.js
var westCoastCities = citiesRef.where('regions', 'array-contains',
  'west_coast');
Go
query := cities.Where("regions", "array-contains", "west_coast").Documents(ctx)
PHP
$containsQuery = $citiesRef->where('regions', 'array-contains', 'west_coast');
C#
Query query = citiesRef.WhereArrayContains("Regions", "west_coast");
Ruby
// Not supported yet

This query returns every city document where the regions field is an array that contains west_coast. If the array has multiple instances of the value you query on, the document is included in the results only once.

Compound queries

You can also chain multiple where() methods to create more specific queries (logical AND). However, to combine the equality operator (==) with a range or array-contains clause (<, <=, >, >=, or array_contains), make sure to create a composite index.

Web
citiesRef.where("state", "==", "CO").where("name", "==", "Denver")
citiesRef.where("state", "==", "CA").where("population", "<", 1000000)
Swift
citiesRef
    .whereField("state", isEqualTo: "CO")
    .whereField("name", isEqualTo: "Denver")
citiesRef
    .whereField("state", isEqualTo: "CA")
    .whereField("population", isLessThan: 1000000)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isEqualTo:@"CO"]
    queryWhereField:@"name" isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:@"Denver"];
[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isEqualTo:@"CA"]
    queryWhereField:@"population" isLessThan:@1000000];
  
Java
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CO").whereEqualTo("name", "Denver");
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA").whereLessThan("population", 1000000);
Kotlin
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CO").whereEqualTo("name", "Denver")
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA").whereLessThan("population", 1000000)
Java
Query chainedQuery1 = cities.whereEqualTo("state", "CO")
    .whereEqualTo("name", "Denver");
Query chainedQuery2 = cities.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
    .whereLessThan("population", 1000000L);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')

sydney_query = cities_ref.where(
    u'state', u'==', u'CO').where(u'name', u'==', u'Denver')
large_us_cities_query = cities_ref.where(
    u'state', u'==', u'CA').where(u'population', u'>', 1000000)
Node.js
citiesRef.where('state', '==', 'CO').where('name', '==', 'Denver');
citiesRef.where('state', '==', 'CA').where('population', '<', 1000000);
Go
denverQuery := cities.Where("name", "==", "Denver").Where("state", "==", "CO")
caliQuery := cities.Where("state", "==", "CA").Where("population", "<=", 1000000)
query := cities.Where("country", "==", "USA").Where("population", ">", 5000000)
PHP
$chainedQuery = $citiesRef
    ->where('state', '=', 'CA')
    ->where('name', '=', 'San Francisco');
$chainedQuery = $citiesRef
    ->where('state', '=', 'CA')
    ->where('population', '<', 1000000);
C#
Query chainedQuery = citiesRef
    .WhereEqualTo("State", "CA")
    .WhereEqualTo("Name", "San Francisco");
Query chainedQuery = citiesRef
    .WhereEqualTo("State", "CA")
    .WhereLessThan("Population", 1000000);
Ruby
chained_query = cities_ref.where("state", "=", "CA").where("name", "=", "San Francisco")
chained_query = cities_ref.where("state", "=", "CA").where("population", "<", 1_000_000)

You can only perform range comparisons (<, <=, >, >=) on a single field, and you can include at most one array_contains clause in a compound query:

Valid: Range filters on only one field

Web
citiesRef.where("state", ">=", "CA").where("state", "<=", "IN")
citiesRef.where("state", "==", "CA").where("population", ">", 1000000)
Swift
citiesRef
    .whereField("state", isGreaterThanOrEqualTo: "CA")
    .whereField("state", isLessThanOrEqualTo: "IN")
citiesRef
    .whereField("state", isEqualTo: "CA")
    .whereField("population", isGreaterThan: 1000000)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:@"CA"]
    queryWhereField:@"state" isLessThanOrEqualTo:@"IN"];
[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isEqualTo:@"CA"]
    queryWhereField:@"population" isGreaterThan:@1000000];
  
Java
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA")
        .whereLessThanOrEqualTo("state", "IN");
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
        .whereGreaterThan("population", 1000000);
Kotlin
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA")
        .whereLessThanOrEqualTo("state", "IN")
citiesRef.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
        .whereGreaterThan("population", 1000000)
Java
Query validQuery1 = cities.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA")
    .whereLessThanOrEqualTo("state", "IN");
Query validQuery2 = cities.whereEqualTo("state", "CA")
    .whereGreaterThan("population", 1000000);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
cities_ref.where(u'state', u'>=', u'CA').where(u'state', u'<=', u'IN')
Node.js
citiesRef.where('state', '>=', 'CA').where('state', '<=', 'IN');
citiesRef.where('state', '==', 'CA').where('population', '>', 1000000);
Go
stateQuery := cities.Where("state", ">=", "CA").Where("state", "<", "IN")
populationQuery := cities.Where("state", "==", "CA").Where("population", ">", 1000000)
PHP
$rangeQuery = $citiesRef
    ->where('state', '>=', 'CA')
    ->where('state', '<=', 'IN');
C#
Query rangeQuery = citiesRef
    .WhereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("State", "CA")
    .WhereLessThanOrEqualTo("State", "IN");
Ruby
range_query = cities_ref.where("state", ">=", "CA").where("state", "<=", "IN")

Invalid: Range filters on different fields

Web
citiesRef.where("state", ">=", "CA").where("population", ">", 100000)
Swift
citiesRef
    .whereField("state", isGreaterThanOrEqualTo: "CA")
    .whereField("population", isGreaterThan: 1000000)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"state" isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:@"CA"]
    queryWhereField:@"population" isGreaterThan:@1000000];
  
Java
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA").whereGreaterThan("population", 100000);
Kotlin
citiesRef.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA")
        .whereGreaterThan("population", 100000)
Java
Query invalidRangeQuery = cities.whereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("state", "CA")
    .whereGreaterThan("population", 100000);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
cities_ref.where(
    u'state', u'>=', u'CA').where(u'population', u'>=', 1000000)
Node.js
citiesRef.where('state', '>=', 'CA').where('population', '>', 1000000);
Go
query := cities.Where("state", ">=", "CA").Where("population", ">", 1000000)
PHP
$invalidRangeQuery = $citiesRef
    ->where('state', '>=', 'CA')
    ->where('population', '>', 1000000);
C#
Query invalidRangeQuery = citiesRef
    .WhereGreaterThanOrEqualTo("State", "CA")
    .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 1000000);
Ruby
invalid_range_query = cities_ref.where("state", ">=", "CA").where("population", ">", 1_000_000)

Collection group queries

A collection group consists of all collections with the same ID. By default, queries retrieve results from a single collection in your database. Use a collection group query to retrieve documents from a collection group instead of from a single collection.

For example, you can create a landmarks collection group by adding a landmarks subcollection to each city:

Web
var citiesRef = db.collection('cities');

var landmarks = Promise.all([
    citiesRef.doc('SF').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Golden Gate Bridge',
        type: 'bridge'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('SF').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Legion of Honor',
        type: 'museum'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('LA').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Griffith Park',
        type: 'park'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('LA').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'The Getty',
        type: 'museum'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('DC').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Lincoln Memorial',
        type: 'memorial'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('DC').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'National Air and Space Museum',
        type: 'museum'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('TOK').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Ueno Park',
        type: 'park'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('TOK').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'National Museum of Nature and Science',
        type: 'museum'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('BJ').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Jingshan Park',
        type: 'park'
    }),
    citiesRef.doc('BJ').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
        name: 'Beijing Ancient Observatory',
        type: 'museum'
    })
]);
Swift
// Snippet not yet available
Objective-C
// Snippet not yet available
  
Java
CollectionReference citiesRef = db.collection("cities");

Map<String, Object> ggbData = new HashMap<>();
ggbData.put("name", "Golden Gate Bridge");
ggbData.put("type", "bridge");
citiesRef.document("SF").collection("landmarks").add(ggbData);

Map<String, Object> lohData = new HashMap<>();
lohData.put("name", "Legion of Honor");
lohData.put("type", "musuem");
citiesRef.document("SF").collection("landmarks").add(lohData);

Map<String, Object> gpData = new HashMap<>();
gpData.put("name", "Griffith Park");
gpData.put("type", "park");
citiesRef.document("LA").collection("landmarks").add(gpData);

Map<String, Object> tgData = new HashMap<>();
tgData.put("name", "The Getty");
tgData.put("type", "museum");
citiesRef.document("LA").collection("landmarks").add(tgData);

Map<String, Object> lmData = new HashMap<>();
lmData.put("name", "Lincoln Memorial");
lmData.put("type", "memorial");
citiesRef.document("DC").collection("landmarks").add(lmData);

Map<String, Object> nasaData = new HashMap<>();
nasaData.put("name", "National Air and Space Musuem");
nasaData.put("type", "museum");
citiesRef.document("DC").collection("landmarks").add(nasaData);

Map<String, Object> upData = new HashMap<>();
upData.put("name", "Ueno Park");
upData.put("type", "park");
citiesRef.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").add(upData);

Map<String, Object> nmData = new HashMap<>();
nmData.put("name", "National Musuem of Nature and Science");
nmData.put("type", "museum");
citiesRef.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").add(nmData);

Map<String, Object> jpData = new HashMap<>();
jpData.put("name", "Jingshan Park");
jpData.put("type", "park");
citiesRef.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").add(jpData);

Map<String, Object> baoData = new HashMap<>();
baoData.put("name", "Beijing Ancient Observatory");
baoData.put("type", "museum");
citiesRef.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").add(baoData);
Kotlin
val citiesRef = db.collection("cities")

val ggbData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Golden Gate Bridge",
        "type" to "bridge"
)
citiesRef.document("SF").collection("landmarks").add(ggbData)

val lohData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Legion of Honor",
        "type" to "museum"
)
citiesRef.document("SF").collection("landmarks").add(lohData)

val gpData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Griffth Park",
        "type" to "park"
)
citiesRef.document("LA").collection("landmarks").add(gpData)

val tgData = mapOf(
        "name" to "The Getty",
        "type" to "museum"
)
citiesRef.document("LA").collection("landmarks").add(tgData)

val lmData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Lincoln Memorial",
        "type" to "memorial"
)
citiesRef.document("DC").collection("landmarks").add(lmData)

val nasaData = mapOf(
        "name" to "National Air and Space Museum",
        "type" to "museum"
)
citiesRef.document("DC").collection("landmarks").add(nasaData)

val upData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Ueno Park",
        "type" to "park"
)
citiesRef.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").add(upData)

val nmData = mapOf(
        "name" to "National Musuem of Nature and Science",
        "type" to "museum"
)
citiesRef.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").add(nmData)

val jpData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Jingshan Park",
        "type" to "park"
)
citiesRef.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").add(jpData)

val baoData = mapOf(
        "name" to "Beijing Ancient Observatory",
        "type" to "musuem"
)
citiesRef.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").add(baoData)
Java
CollectionReference cities = db.collection("cities");

final List<ApiFuture<WriteResult>> futures = Arrays.asList(
  cities.document("SF").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Golden Gate Bridge");
    put("type", "bridge");
  }}),
  cities.document("SF").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Legion of Honor");
    put("type", "museum");
  }}),
  cities.document("LA").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Griffith Park");
    put("type", "park");
  }}),
  cities.document("LA").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "The Getty");
    put("type", "museum");
  }}),
  cities.document("DC").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Lincoln Memorial");
    put("type", "memorial");
  }}),
  cities.document("DC").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "National Air and Space Museum");
    put("type", "museum");
  }}),
  cities.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Ueno Park");
    put("type", "park");
  }}),
  cities.document("TOK").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "National Museum of Nature and Science");
    put("type", "museum");
  }}),
  cities.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Jingshan Park");
    put("type", "park");
  }}),
  cities.document("BJ").collection("landmarks").document().set(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("name", "Beijing Ancient Observatory");
    put("type", "museum");
  }})
);
final List<WriteResult> landmarks = ApiFutures.allAsList(futures).get();
Python
cities = db.collection(u'cities')

sf_landmarks = cities.document(u'SF').collection(u'landmarks')
sf_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Golden Gate Bridge',
    u'type': u'bridge'
})
sf_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Legion of Honor',
    u'type': u'museum'
})
la_landmarks = cities.document(u'LA').collection(u'landmarks')
la_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Griffith Park',
    u'type': u'park'
})
la_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'The Getty',
    u'type': u'museum'
})
dc_landmarks = cities.document(u'DC').collection(u'landmarks')
dc_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Lincoln Memorial',
    u'type': u'memorial'
})
dc_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'National Air and Space Museum',
    u'type': u'museum'
})
tok_landmarks = cities.document(u'TOK').collection(u'landmarks')
tok_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Ueno Park',
    u'type': u'park'
})
tok_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'National Museum of Nature and Science',
    u'type': u'museum'
})
bj_landmarks = cities.document(u'BJ').collection(u'landmarks')
bj_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Jingshan Park',
    u'type': u'park'
})
bj_landmarks.document().set({
    u'name': u'Beijing Ancient Observatory',
    u'type': u'museum'
})
Node.js
var citiesRef = db.collection('cities');

var landmarks = Promise.all([
  citiesRef.doc('SF').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Golden Gate Bridge',
    type: 'bridge'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('SF').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Legion of Honor',
    type: 'museum'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('LA').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Griffith Park',
    type: 'park'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('LA').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'The Getty',
    type: 'museum'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('DC').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Lincoln Memorial',
    type: 'memorial'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('DC').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'National Air and Space Museum',
    type: 'museum'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('TOK').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Ueno Park',
    type: 'park'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('TOK').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'National Museum of Nature and Science',
    type: 'museum'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('BJ').collection('landmarks').doc().set({
    name: 'Jingshan Park',
    type: 'park'
  }),
  citiesRef.doc('BJ').collection('landmarks').doc().set({ 
    name: 'Beijing Ancient Observatory',
    type: 'museum'
  })
]);
Go
import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	"cloud.google.com/go/firestore"
)

// collectionGroupSetup sets up a collection group to query.
func collectionGroupSetup(projectID string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := firestore.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("firestore.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	landmarks := []struct {
		city, name, t string
	}{
		{"SF", "Golden Gate Bridge", "bridge"},
		{"SF", "Legion of Honor", "museum"},
		{"LA", "Griffith Park", "park"},
		{"LA", "The Getty", "museum"},
		{"DC", "Lincoln Memorial", "memorial"},
		{"DC", "National Air and Space Museum", "museum"},
		{"TOK", "Ueno Park", "park"},
		{"TOK", "National Museum of Nature and Science", "museum"},
		{"BJ", "Jingshan Park", "park"},
		{"BJ", "Beijing Ancient Observatory", "museum"},
	}

	cities := client.Collection("cities")
	for _, l := range landmarks {
		if _, err := cities.Doc(l.city).Collection("landmarks").NewDoc().Set(ctx, map[string]string{
			"name": l.name,
			"type": l.t,
		}); err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("Set: %v", err)
		}
	}

	return nil
}

PHP
// Snippet not yet available
C#
// Snippet not yet available
Ruby
// Snippet not yet available

We can use the simple and compound query described earlier to query a single city's landmarks subcollection, but you might also want to retrieve results from every city's landmarks subcollection at once.

The landmarks collection group consists of all collections with the ID landmarks, and you can query it using a collection group query. For example, this collection group query retrieves all museum landmarks across all cities:

Web
var museums = db.collectionGroup('landmarks').where('type', '==', 'museum');
museums.get().then(function (querySnapshot) {
    querySnapshot.forEach(function (doc) {
        console.log(doc.id, ' => ', doc.data());
    });
});
Swift
// Snippet not yet available
Objective-C
// Snippet not yet available
  
Java
db.collectionGroup("landmarks").whereEqualTo("type", "museum").get()
        .addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<QuerySnapshot>() {
            @Override
            public void onSuccess(QuerySnapshot queryDocumentSnapshots) {
                // ...
            }
        });
Kotlin
db.collectionGroup("landmarks").whereEqualTo("type", "museum").get()
        .addOnSuccessListener { queryDocumentSnapshots ->
            // ...
        }
Java
final Query museums = db.collectionGroup("landmarks").whereEqualTo("type", "museum");
final ApiFuture<QuerySnapshot> querySnapshot = museums.get();
for (DocumentSnapshot document : querySnapshot.get().getDocuments()) {
  System.out.println(document.getId());
}
Python
museums = db.collection_group(u'landmarks')\
    .where(u'type', u'==', u'museum')
docs = museums.get()
for doc in docs:
    print(u'{} => {}'.format(doc.id, doc.to_dict()))
Node.js
let museums = db.collectionGroup('landmarks').where('type', '==', 'museum');
museums.get().then(function(querySnapshot) {
  querySnapshot.forEach(function(doc) {
    console.log(doc.id, ' => ', doc.data());
  });
});
Go
import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/firestore"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

// collectionGroupQuery runs a collection group query over the data created by
// collectionGroupSetup.
func collectionGroupQuery(w io.Writer, projectID string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := firestore.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("firestore.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	it := client.CollectionGroup("landmarks").Where("type", "==", "museum").Documents(ctx)
	for {
		doc, err := it.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			break
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%s: %s", doc.Ref.ID, doc.Data()["name"])
	}

	return nil
}

PHP
// Snippet not yet available
C#
// Snippet not yet available
Ruby
// Snippet not yet available

Before using a collection group query, you must create an index that supports your collection group query. You can create an index through an error message, the console, or the Firebase CLI.

For the web and mobile SDKs, you must also create rules that allow your collection group queries.

Query limitations

Cloud Firestore does not support the following types of queries:

  • Queries with range filters on different fields, as described in the previous section.
  • Logical OR queries. In this case, you should create a separate query for each OR condition and merge the query results in your app.
  • Queries with a != clause. In this case, you should split the query into a greater-than query and a less-than query. For example, although the query clause where("age", "!=", "30") is not supported, you can get the same result set by combining two queries, one with the clause where("age", "<", "30") and one with the clause where("age", ">", 30).