Manage databases

This page describes how to create, update, and delete Cloud Firestore databases. You can create multiple Cloud Firestore databases per project. You can use multiple databases to set up production and testing environments, to isolate customer data, and for data regionalization.

The (default) database

If your app does not require multiple databases, use the (default) database.

If you do not specify a database, the Cloud Firestore client libraries and the Google Cloud CLI connect to the (default) database by default.

You can use the Free quota only with the (default) database.

Required roles

To create and manage databases, you need the Owner or Datastore Owner Identity and Access Management role. These roles grant the required permissions.

Required permissions

To manage databases, you require the following permissions:

  • Create a database: datastore.databases.create
  • Read database configuration: datastore.databases.getMetadata
  • Configure a database: datastore.databases.update
  • Delete a database: datastore.databases.delete

Create a database

To create a database, use one of the following methods:

Console
  1. In the Firebase console, go to the Firestore Database page.

    Go to Firestore Database

  2. If this is your first named database, click Add database.
  3. Otherwise, click (default), then Add database.
  4. Configure your database. Enter a Database ID. Select a location. Click Create Database.
gcloud

Use the gcloud alpha firestore databases create command.

gcloud alpha firestore databases create \
--database=DATABASE_ID \
--location=LOCATION \
--type=DATABASE_TYPE \
[--delete-protection]

Replace the following:

--delete-protection is an optional flag to enable deletion protection. You cannot delete a database with deletion protection enabled until you disable this setting. This setting is disabled by default.

Firebase CLI
firebase firestore:databases:create DATABASE_ID \
--location=LOCATION \
[--delete-protection DELETE_PROTECTION_ENABLEMENT]

Replace the following:

--delete-protection is an optional argument to enable deletion protection. You cannot delete a database with deletion protection enabled until you disable this setting. This setting is disabled by default.

Terraform
resource "google_firestore_database" "database" {
  project     = "project-id"
  name        = DATABASE_ID
  location_id = LOCATION
  type        = DATABASE_TYPE

  // Optional
  delete_protection_state = DELETE_PROTECTION_STATE
}

Replace the following:

  • DATABASE_ID: a valid database ID.
  • LOCATION: the name of a Cloud Firestore multi-region or region.
  • DATABASE_TYPE: either FIRESTORE_NATIVE for Native mode or DATASTORE_MODE for Datastore mode.
  • DELETE_PROTECTION_ENABLEMENT: Either DELETE_PROTECTION_ENABLED or DELETE_PROTECTION_DISABLED.

delete_protection_state is an optional argument to enable deletion protection. You cannot delete a database with deletion protection enabled until you disable this setting. This setting is disabled by default.

Database ID

Valid database IDs include (default) and IDs that conform to the following:

  • Includes only letters, numbers, and hyphen (-) characters.
  • Letters must be lowercase.
  • The first character must be a letter.
  • The last character must be a letter or number.
  • Minimum of 4 characters.
  • Maximum of 63 characters.
  • Must not be a UUID or resemble a UUID. For example, do not use an ID like f47ac10b-58cc-0372-8567-0e02b2c3d479.

If you delete a database, you cannot immediately re-use the database ID until after 5 minutes.

Delete protection

Use delete protection to prevent accidental deletion of a database. You cannot delete a database with delete protection enabled until you disable delete protection. Delete protection is disabled by default. You can enable delete protection when you create the database or you can update a database configuration to enable delete protection.

Set up Cloud Firestore Security Rules for your databases

Use the Firebase CLI to deploy Cloud Firestore Security Rules to each of your databases. Refer to the guide for managing and deploying Cloud Firestore Security Rules.

Access a named database with a client library

A named database includes any database not named (default). By default, the Firebase SDKs and Google API Client Libraries connect to the (default) Cloud Firestore database in a project. To create a client connected to a named database, set the database ID when you instantiate a client.

List databases

Use one of the following methods to list your databases:

Console

In the Google Cloud Platform Console, go to the Databases page.

Go to Databases

gcloud

Use the gcloud firestore databases list command to list all the databases in your project.

gcloud firestore databases list

View database details

To view details about a single database, use the gcloud firestore databases describe command:

gcloud
gcloud firestore databases describe --database=DATABASE_ID

Replace DATABASE_ID with a database ID.

Update database configuration

To update the configurations settings of a database, use the gcloud alpha firestore databases update command. Use this command to change to enable or disable delete protection.

Update the delete protection setting

To enable delete protection on a database, use the gcloud alpha firestore databases update command with the --delete-protection flag. For example:

gcloud
gcloud alpha firestore databases update --database=DATABASE_ID --delete-protection

Replace DATABASE_ID with a database ID.

To disable delete protection on a database, use the gcloud alpha firestore databases update command with the --no-delete-protection flag. For example:

gcloud
gcloud alpha firestore databases update --database=DATABASE_ID --no-delete-protection

Replace DATABASE_ID with a database ID.

Delete a database

To delete a database, use the console or command-line tool.

If the database has the delete protection setting enabled, you must first disable delete protection.

If the database contains App Engine search data or blob entities, you must delete that data first.

Deleting a database does not automatically delete any Eventarc triggers for that database. The trigger stops delivering events but continues to exist until you delete the trigger.

Console
  1. In the Firebase console, go to the Firestore Database page.

    Go to Firestore Database

  2. On the Data tab, above the data table view for the database, click , then select Delete database.
  3. Follow the instructions to delete the database.
gcloud

Use the `gcloud alpha firestore databases delete` command.

gcloud alpha firestore databases delete --database=DATABASE_ID

Replace DATABASE_ID with the ID of the database to delete.

Configure per-database access permissions

You can use Identity and Access Management Conditions to configure access permissions on a per-database level. The following examples use the Google Cloud CLI to assign conditional access for one or more databases. You can also define IAM conditions in the GCP Console.

View existing IAM policies

gcloud projects get-iam-policy PROJECT_ID

Set PROJECT_ID to your project ID.

Grant access to a database

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding PROJECT_ID \
--member='user:EMAIL' \
--role='roles/datastore.user' \
--condition='expression=resource.name=="projects/PROJECT_ID/databases/DATABASE_ID",title=TITLE,description=DESCRIPTION'

Set the following:

  • PROJECT_ID: your project ID
  • EMAIL: an email address that represents a specific Google account. For example, alice@example.com.
  • DATABASE_ID: a database ID.
  • TITLE: an optional title for the expression.
  • DESCRIPTION: an optional description of the expression.

Grant access to all except one database

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding PROJECT_ID \
--member='user:EMAIL' \
--role='roles/datastore.user' \
--condition='expression=resource.name!="projects/PROJECT_ID/databases/DATABASE_ID",title=TITLE,description=DESCRIPTION'

Set the following:

  • PROJECT_ID: your project ID
  • EMAIL: an email address that represents a specific Google account. For example, alice@example.com.
  • DATABASE_ID: a database ID.
  • TITLE: an optional title for the expression.
  • DESCRIPTION: an optional description of the expression.

Remove policies for a given member and role

gcloud projects remove-iam-policy-binding PROJECT_ID \
--member='user:EMAIL' \
--role='roles/datastore.user' --all

Set the following:

  • PROJECT_ID: your project ID
  • EMAIL: an email address that represents a specific Google account. For example, alice@example.com.

Cloud Monitoring

Cloud Firestore metrics are reported under two monitored resources.

You can inspect aggregate metrics at the database level by looking at firestore.googleapis.com/Database. The metrics reported under firestore_instance are aggregated at the project level.

Limitations

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