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Pengantar Admin Database API

Dengan Admin SDK, Anda dapat membaca dan menulis data Realtime Database dengan hak istimewa admin penuh, atau dengan hak istimewa yang sangat terbatas. Dalam dokumen ini, kami akan memandu Anda dalam menambahkan Firebase Admin SDK ke project Anda untuk mengakses Firebase Realtime Database.

Penyiapan Admin SDK

Untuk memulai dengan Firebase Realtime Database pada server, Anda harus terlebih dulu menyiapkan Firebase Admin SDK dalam bahasa pilihan Anda.

Autentikasi Admin SDK

Sebelum Anda bisa mengakses Firebase Realtime database dari server dengan menggunakan Firebase Admin SDK, Anda harus mengautentikasi server dengan Firebase. Ketika mengautentikasi server, Anda tidak login dengan kredensial akun pengguna seperti yang dilakukan dalam aplikasi klien, tetapi Anda mengautentikasi dengan akun layanan yang mengidentifikasi server Anda ke Firebase.

Anda bisa memperoleh 2 tingkat akses yang berbeda saat mengautentikasi menggunakan Firebase Admin SDK:

Tingkat Akses Autentikasi Firebase Admin SDK
Hak istimewa administratif Selesaikan akses baca dan tulis untuk Realtime Database project. Berhati-hatilah dalam menyelesaikan tugas administratif seperti migrasi atau restrukturasi data yang memerlukan akses tidak terbatas ke resource project Anda.
Hak istimewa terbatas Akses ke project Realtime Database dibatasi hanya untuk resource yang dibutuhkan server. Gunakan level ini untuk menyelesaikan tugas administratif dengan persyaratan akses yang ditetapkan dengan baik. Misalnya, ketika menjalankan pekerjaan ringkasan yang membaca data di seluruh database, Anda dapat terlindung dari penulisan yang tidak disengaja dengan menetapkan aturan keamanan hanya-baca, kemudian menginisialisasi Admin SDK dengan hak istimewa yang dibatasi aturan tersebut.

Mengautentikasi dengan hak istimewa admin

Ketika Anda menginisialisasi Firebase Admin SDK dengan kredensial akun layanan sebagai Editor pada project Firebase Anda, instance tersebut memiliki akses penuh baca dan tulis ke Realtime Database project.

Java
// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
FileInputStream serviceAccount = new FileInputStream("path/to/serviceAccount.json");

// Initialize the app with a service account, granting admin privileges
FirebaseOptions options = new FirebaseOptions.Builder()
    .setCredentials(GoogleCredentials.fromStream(serviceAccount))
    .setDatabaseUrl("https://<databaseName>.firebaseio.com")
    .build();
FirebaseApp.initializeApp(options);

// As an admin, the app has access to read and write all data, regardless of Security Rules
DatabaseReference ref = FirebaseDatabase.getInstance()
    .getReference("restricted_access/secret_document");
ref.addListenerForSingleValueEvent(new ValueEventListener() {
  @Override
  public void onDataChange(DataSnapshot dataSnapshot) {
    Object document = dataSnapshot.getValue();
    System.out.println(document);
  }

  @Override
  public void onCancelled(DatabaseError error) {
  }
});
Node.js
var admin = require("firebase-admin");

// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
var serviceAccount = require("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json");

// Initialize the app with a service account, granting admin privileges
admin.initializeApp({
  credential: admin.credential.cert(serviceAccount),
  databaseURL: "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com"
});

// As an admin, the app has access to read and write all data, regardless of Security Rules
var db = admin.database();
var ref = db.ref("restricted_access/secret_document");
ref.once("value", function(snapshot) {
  console.log(snapshot.val());
});
Python
import firebase_admin
from firebase_admin import credentials
from firebase_admin import db

# Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
cred = credentials.Certificate('path/to/serviceAccountKey.json')

# Initialize the app with a service account, granting admin privileges
firebase_admin.initialize_app(cred, {
    'databaseURL': 'https://databaseName.firebaseio.com'
})

# As an admin, the app has access to read and write all data, regradless of Security Rules
ref = db.reference('restricted_access/secret_document')
print(ref.get())
Go
ctx := context.Background()
conf := &firebase.Config{
	DatabaseURL: "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com",
}
// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
opt := option.WithCredentialsFile("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json")

// Initialize the app with a service account, granting admin privileges
app, err := firebase.NewApp(ctx, conf, opt)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing app:", err)
}

client, err := app.Database(ctx)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing database client:", err)
}

// As an admin, the app has access to read and write all data, regradless of Security Rules
ref := client.NewRef("restricted_access/secret_document")
var data map[string]interface{}
if err := ref.Get(ctx, &data); err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error reading from database:", err)
}
fmt.Println(data)

Mengautentikasi dengan hak istimewa terbatas

Sebagai praktik terbaik, layanan hanya boleh memiliki akses ke resource yang dibutuhkan. Untuk memperoleh kontrol lebih atas resource yang dapat diakses instance aplikasi Firebase, gunakan pengenal unik dalam Aturan Keamanan untuk mewakili layanan Anda. Kemudian, siapkan aturan sesuai yang memberikan akses layanan untuk resource yang dibutuhkan. Misalnya:

{
  "rules": {
    "public_resource": {
      ".read": true,
      ".write": true
    },
    "some_resource": {
      ".read": "auth.uid === 'my-service-worker'",
      ".write": false
    },
    "another_resource": {
      ".read": "auth.uid === 'my-service-worker'",
      ".write": "auth.uid === 'my-service-worker'"
    }
  }
}

Kemudian, pada server Anda, ketika menginisialisasi aplikasi Firebase, gunakan opsi databaseAuthVariableOverride untuk mengganti objek auth yang digunakan dalam aturan database. Pada objek auth kustom ini, setel kolom uid ke pengenal yang digunakan untuk mewakili layanan dalam Aturan Keamanan.

Java
// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
FileInputStream serviceAccount = new FileInputStream("path/to/serviceAccountCredentials.json");

// Initialize the app with a custom auth variable, limiting the server's access
Map<String, Object> auth = new HashMap<String, Object>();
auth.put("uid", "my-service-worker");

FirebaseOptions options = new FirebaseOptions.Builder()
    .setCredential(FirebaseCredentials.fromCertificate(serviceAccount))
    .setDatabaseUrl("https://databaseName.firebaseio.com")
    .setDatabaseAuthVariableOverride(auth)
    .build();
FirebaseApp.initializeApp(options);

// The app only has access as defined in the Security Rules
DatabaseReference ref = FirebaseDatabase
    .getInstance()
    .getReference("/some_resource");
ref.addListenerForSingleValueEvent(new ValueEventListener() {
    @Override
    public void onDataChange(DataSnapshot dataSnapshot) {
        String res = dataSnapshot.getValue();
        System.out.println(res);
    }
});
Node.js
var admin = require("firebase-admin");

// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
var serviceAccount = require("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json");

// Initialize the app with a custom auth variable, limiting the server's access
admin.initializeApp({
  credential: admin.credential.cert(serviceAccount),
  databaseURL: "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com",
  databaseAuthVariableOverride: {
    uid: "my-service-worker"
  }
});

// The app only has access as defined in the Security Rules
var db = admin.database();
var ref = db.ref("/some_resource");
ref.once("value", function(snapshot) {
  console.log(snapshot.val());
});
Python
import firebase_admin
from firebase_admin import credentials
from firebase_admin import db

# Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
cred = credentials.Certificate('path/to/serviceAccountKey.json')

# Initialize the app with a custom auth variable, limiting the server's access
firebase_admin.initialize_app(cred, {
    'databaseURL': 'https://databaseName.firebaseio.com',
    'databaseAuthVariableOverride': {
        'uid': 'my-service-worker'
    }
})

# The app only has access as defined in the Security Rules
ref = db.reference('/some_resource')
print(ref.get())
Go
ctx := context.Background()
// Initialize the app with a custom auth variable, limiting the server's access
ao := map[string]interface{}{"uid": "my-service-worker"}
conf := &firebase.Config{
	DatabaseURL:  "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com",
	AuthOverride: &ao,
}

// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
opt := option.WithCredentialsFile("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json")

app, err := firebase.NewApp(ctx, conf, opt)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing app:", err)
}

client, err := app.Database(ctx)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing database client:", err)
}

// The app only has access as defined in the Security Rules
ref := client.NewRef("/some_resource")
var data map[string]interface{}
if err := ref.Get(ctx, &data); err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error reading from database:", err)
}
fmt.Println(data)
Dalam beberapa kasus, Anda dapat men-downscope Admin SDK untuk bertindak sebagai klien yang tidak terautentikasi. Anda dapat melakukannya dengan memberikan nilai null untuk penggantian variabel auth database.
Java
// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
FileInputStream serviceAccount = new FileInputStream("path/to/serviceAccountCredentials.json");

FirebaseOptions options = new FirebaseOptions.Builder()
    .setCredential(FirebaseCredentials.fromCertificate(serviceAccount))
    .setDatabaseUrl("https://databaseName.firebaseio.com")
    .setDatabaseAuthVariableOverride(null)
    .build();
FirebaseApp.initializeApp(options);

// The app only has access to public data as defined in the Security Rules
DatabaseReference ref = FirebaseDatabase
    .getInstance()
    .getReference("/public_resource");
ref.addListenerForSingleValueEvent(new ValueEventListener() {
    @Override
    public void onDataChange(DataSnapshot dataSnapshot) {
        String res = dataSnapshot.getValue();
        System.out.println(res);
    }
});
Node.js
var admin = require("firebase-admin");

// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
var serviceAccount = require("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json");

// Initialize the app with a null auth variable, limiting the server's access
admin.initializeApp({
  credential: admin.credential.cert(serviceAccount),
  databaseURL: "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com",
  databaseAuthVariableOverride: null
});

// The app only has access to public data as defined in the Security Rules
var db = admin.database();
var ref = db.ref("/public_resource");
ref.once("value", function(snapshot) {
  console.log(snapshot.val());
});
Python
import firebase_admin
from firebase_admin import credentials
from firebase_admin import db

# Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
cred = credentials.Certificate('path/to/serviceAccountKey.json')

# Initialize the app with a None auth variable, limiting the server's access
firebase_admin.initialize_app(cred, {
    'databaseURL': 'https://databaseName.firebaseio.com',
    'databaseAuthVariableOverride': None
})

# The app only has access to public data as defined in the Security Rules
ref = db.reference('/public_resource')
print(ref.get())
Go
ctx := context.Background()
// Initialize the app with a nil auth variable, limiting the server's access
var nilMap map[string]interface{}
conf := &firebase.Config{
	DatabaseURL:  "https://databaseName.firebaseio.com",
	AuthOverride: &nilMap,
}

// Fetch the service account key JSON file contents
opt := option.WithCredentialsFile("path/to/serviceAccountKey.json")

app, err := firebase.NewApp(ctx, conf, opt)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing app:", err)
}

client, err := app.Database(ctx)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error initializing database client:", err)
}

// The app only has access to public data as defined in the Security Rules
ref := client.NewRef("/some_resource")
var data map[string]interface{}
if err := ref.Get(ctx, &data); err != nil {
	log.Fatalln("Error reading from database:", err)
}
fmt.Println(data)

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