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Transaktionen und Batch-Schreibvorgänge

Cloud Firestore unterstützt atomare Vorgänge zum Lesen und Schreiben von Daten. In einem Satz atomarer Operationen sind entweder alle Operationen erfolgreich oder keine von ihnen wird angewendet. In Cloud Firestore gibt es zwei Arten von atomaren Vorgängen:

  • Transaktionen: eine Transaktion ist eine Reihe von Lese- und Schreiboperationen auf einem oder mehr Dokumenten.
  • Batched Schreibt: ein batched Schreib ist ein Satz von Schreiboperationen auf einem oder mehr Dokumenten.

Jede Transaktion oder jeder Schreibstapel kann in maximal 500 Dokumente schreiben. Für zusätzliche Begrenzungen schreibt beziehen, finden Sie Quotas und Grenzen .

Aktualisieren von Daten mit Transaktionen

Mit den Cloud Firestore-Clientbibliotheken können Sie mehrere Vorgänge in einer einzigen Transaktion gruppieren. Transaktionen sind nützlich, wenn Sie den Wert eines Felds basierend auf seinem aktuellen Wert oder dem Wert eines anderen Felds aktualisieren möchten.

Eine Transaktion besteht aus einer beliebigen Anzahl von get() Operationen , die von einer beliebigen Anzahl von Schreiboperationen wie folgt set() , update() oder delete() . Bei einer gleichzeitigen Bearbeitung führt Cloud Firestore die gesamte Transaktion erneut aus. Wenn beispielsweise eine Transaktion Dokumente liest und ein anderer Client eines dieser Dokumente ändert, wiederholt Cloud Firestore die Transaktion. Diese Funktion stellt sicher, dass die Transaktion mit aktuellen und konsistenten Daten ausgeführt wird.

Transaktionen wenden Schreibvorgänge nie teilweise an. Alle Schreibvorgänge werden am Ende einer erfolgreichen Transaktion ausgeführt.

Beachten Sie bei der Verwendung von Transaktionen Folgendes:

  • Leseoperationen müssen vor Schreiboperationen kommen.
  • Eine Funktion, die eine Transaktion aufruft (Transaktionsfunktion), kann mehr als einmal ausgeführt werden, wenn eine gleichzeitige Bearbeitung ein Dokument betrifft, das die Transaktion liest.
  • Transaktionsfunktionen sollten den Anwendungsstatus nicht direkt ändern.
  • Transaktionen schlagen fehl, wenn der Client offline ist.

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie Sie eine Transaktion erstellen und ausführen:

Webversion 9

import { runTransaction } from "firebase/firestore";

try {
  await runTransaction(db, async (transaction) => {
    const sfDoc = await transaction.get(sfDocRef);
    if (!sfDoc.exists()) {
      throw "Document does not exist!";
    }

    const newPopulation = sfDoc.data().population + 1;
    transaction.update(sfDocRef, { population: newPopulation });
  });
  console.log("Transaction successfully committed!");
} catch (e) {
  console.log("Transaction failed: ", e);
}

Webversion 8

// Create a reference to the SF doc.
var sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").doc("SF");

// Uncomment to initialize the doc.
// sfDocRef.set({ population: 0 });

return db.runTransaction((transaction) => {
    // This code may get re-run multiple times if there are conflicts.
    return transaction.get(sfDocRef).then((sfDoc) => {
        if (!sfDoc.exists) {
            throw "Document does not exist!";
        }

        // Add one person to the city population.
        // Note: this could be done without a transaction
        //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
        var newPopulation = sfDoc.data().population + 1;
        transaction.update(sfDocRef, { population: newPopulation });
    });
}).then(() => {
    console.log("Transaction successfully committed!");
}).catch((error) => {
    console.log("Transaction failed: ", error);
});
Schnell
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
let sfReference = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

db.runTransaction({ (transaction, errorPointer) -> Any? in
    let sfDocument: DocumentSnapshot
    do {
        try sfDocument = transaction.getDocument(sfReference)
    } catch let fetchError as NSError {
        errorPointer?.pointee = fetchError
        return nil
    }

    guard let oldPopulation = sfDocument.data()?["population"] as? Int else {
        let error = NSError(
            domain: "AppErrorDomain",
            code: -1,
            userInfo: [
                NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: "Unable to retrieve population from snapshot \(sfDocument)"
            ]
        )
        errorPointer?.pointee = error
        return nil
    }

    // Note: this could be done without a transaction
    //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
    transaction.updateData(["population": oldPopulation + 1], forDocument: sfReference)
    return nil
}) { (object, error) in
    if let error = error {
        print("Transaction failed: \(error)")
    } else {
        print("Transaction successfully committed!")
    }
}
Ziel c
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
FIRDocumentReference *sfReference =
    [[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] documentWithPath:@"SF"];
[self.db runTransactionWithBlock:^id (FIRTransaction *transaction, NSError **errorPointer) {
  FIRDocumentSnapshot *sfDocument = [transaction getDocument:sfReference error:errorPointer];
  if (*errorPointer != nil) { return nil; }

  if (![sfDocument.data[@"population"] isKindOfClass:[NSNumber class]]) {
    *errorPointer = [NSError errorWithDomain:@"AppErrorDomain" code:-1 userInfo:@{
      NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: @"Unable to retreive population from snapshot"
    }];
    return nil;
  }
  NSInteger oldPopulation = [sfDocument.data[@"population"] integerValue];

  // Note: this could be done without a transaction
  //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
  [transaction updateData:@{ @"population": @(oldPopulation + 1) } forDocument:sfReference];

  return nil;
} completion:^(id result, NSError *error) {
  if (error != nil) {
    NSLog(@"Transaction failed: %@", error);
  } else {
    NSLog(@"Transaction successfully committed!");
  }
}];

Java

final DocumentReference sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");

db.runTransaction(new Transaction.Function<Void>() {
    @Override
    public Void apply(Transaction transaction) throws FirebaseFirestoreException {
        DocumentSnapshot snapshot = transaction.get(sfDocRef);

        // Note: this could be done without a transaction
        //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
        double newPopulation = snapshot.getDouble("population") + 1;
        transaction.update(sfDocRef, "population", newPopulation);

        // Success
        return null;
    }
}).addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<Void>() {
    @Override
    public void onSuccess(Void aVoid) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Transaction success!");
    }
})
.addOnFailureListener(new OnFailureListener() {
    @Override
    public void onFailure(@NonNull Exception e) {
        Log.w(TAG, "Transaction failure.", e);
    }
});

Kotlin+KTX

val sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

db.runTransaction { transaction ->
    val snapshot = transaction.get(sfDocRef)

    // Note: this could be done without a transaction
    //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
    val newPopulation = snapshot.getDouble("population")!! + 1
    transaction.update(sfDocRef, "population", newPopulation)

    // Success
    null
}.addOnSuccessListener { Log.d(TAG, "Transaction success!") }
        .addOnFailureListener { e -> Log.w(TAG, "Transaction failure.", e) }
Java
// Initialize doc
final DocumentReference docRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");
City city = new City("SF");
city.setCountry("USA");
city.setPopulation(860000L);
docRef.set(city).get();

// run an asynchronous transaction
ApiFuture<Void> futureTransaction = db.runTransaction(transaction -> {
  // retrieve document and increment population field
  DocumentSnapshot snapshot = transaction.get(docRef).get();
  long oldPopulation = snapshot.getLong("population");
  transaction.update(docRef, "population", oldPopulation + 1);
  return null;
});
// block on transaction operation using transaction.get()
Python
transaction = db.transaction()
city_ref = db.collection(u'cities').document(u'SF')

@firestore.transactional
def update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref):
    snapshot = city_ref.get(transaction=transaction)
    transaction.update(city_ref, {
        u'population': snapshot.get(u'population') + 1
    })

update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref)

Python

transaction = db.transaction()
city_ref = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

@firestore.async_transactional
async def update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref):
    snapshot = await city_ref.get(transaction=transaction)
    transaction.update(city_ref, {"population": snapshot.get("population") + 1})

await update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref)
C++
DocumentReference sf_doc_ref = db->Collection("cities").Document("SF");
db->RunTransaction([sf_doc_ref](Transaction& transaction,
                                std::string& out_error_message) -> Error {
    Error error = Error::kErrorOk;

    DocumentSnapshot snapshot =
        transaction.Get(sf_doc_ref, &error, &out_error_message);

    // Note: this could be done without a transaction by updating the
    // population using FieldValue::Increment().
    std::int64_t new_population =
        snapshot.Get("population").integer_value() + 1;
    transaction.Update(
        sf_doc_ref,
        {{"population", FieldValue::Integer(new_population)}});

    return Error::kErrorOk;
  }).OnCompletion([](const Future<void>& future) {
  if (future.error() == Error::kErrorOk) {
    std::cout << "Transaction success!" << std::endl;
  } else {
    std::cout << "Transaction failure: " << future.error_message() << std::endl;
  }
});
Node.js
// Initialize document
const cityRef = db.collection('cities').doc('SF');
await cityRef.set({
  name: 'San Francisco',
  state: 'CA',
  country: 'USA',
  capital: false,
  population: 860000
});

try {
  await db.runTransaction(async (t) => {
    const doc = await t.get(cityRef);

    // Add one person to the city population.
    // Note: this could be done without a transaction
    //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
    const newPopulation = doc.data().population + 1;
    t.update(cityRef, {population: newPopulation});
  });

  console.log('Transaction success!');
} catch (e) {
  console.log('Transaction failure:', e);
}
gehen
ref := client.Collection("cities").Doc("SF")
err := client.RunTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, tx *firestore.Transaction) error {
	doc, err := tx.Get(ref) // tx.Get, NOT ref.Get!
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	pop, err := doc.DataAt("population")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return tx.Set(ref, map[string]interface{}{
		"population": pop.(int64) + 1,
	}, firestore.MergeAll)
})
if err != nil {
	// Handle any errors appropriately in this section.
	log.Printf("An error has occurred: %s", err)
}
PHP
$cityRef = $db->collection('samples/php/cities')->document('SF');
$db->runTransaction(function (Transaction $transaction) use ($cityRef) {
    $snapshot = $transaction->snapshot($cityRef);
    $newPopulation = $snapshot['population'] + 1;
    $transaction->update($cityRef, [
        ['path' => 'population', 'value' => $newPopulation]
    ]);
});
Einheit
DocumentReference cityRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
db.RunTransactionAsync(transaction =>
    {
        return transaction.GetSnapshotAsync(cityRef).ContinueWith((snapshotTask) =>
        {
            DocumentSnapshot snapshot = snapshotTask.Result;
            long newPopulation = snapshot.GetValue<long>("Population") + 1;
            Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
            {
                { "Population", newPopulation}
            };
            transaction.Update(cityRef, updates);
        });
    });
C#
DocumentReference cityRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
await db.RunTransactionAsync(async transaction =>
{
    DocumentSnapshot snapshot = await transaction.GetSnapshotAsync(cityRef);
    long newPopulation = snapshot.GetValue<long>("Population") + 1;
    Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
    {
        { "Population", newPopulation}
    };
    transaction.Update(cityRef, updates);
});
Rubin
city_ref = firestore.doc "#{collection_path}/SF"

firestore.transaction do |tx|
  new_population = tx.get(city_ref).data[:population] + 1
  puts "New population is #{new_population}."
  tx.update city_ref, { population: new_population }
end

Weitergabe von Informationen aus Transaktionen

Ändern Sie den Anwendungsstatus innerhalb Ihrer Transaktionsfunktionen nicht. Dies führt zu Parallelitätsproblemen, da Transaktionsfunktionen mehrmals ausgeführt werden können und nicht garantiert wird, dass sie auf dem UI-Thread ausgeführt werden. Übergeben Sie stattdessen die Informationen, die Sie aus Ihren Transaktionsfunktionen benötigen. Das folgende Beispiel baut auf dem vorherigen Beispiel auf, um zu zeigen, wie Informationen aus einer Transaktion übergeben werden:

Webversion 9

import { doc, runTransaction } from "firebase/firestore";

// Create a reference to the SF doc.
const sfDocRef = doc(db, "cities", "SF");

try {
  const newPopulation = await runTransaction(db, async (transaction) => {
    const sfDoc = await transaction.get(sfDocRef);
    if (!sfDoc.exists()) {
      throw "Document does not exist!";
    }

    const newPop = sfDoc.data().population + 1;
    if (newPop <= 1000000) {
      transaction.update(sfDocRef, { population: newPop });
      return newPop;
    } else {
      return Promise.reject("Sorry! Population is too big");
    }
  });

  console.log("Population increased to ", newPopulation);
} catch (e) {
  // This will be a "population is too big" error.
  console.error(e);
}

Webversion 8

// Create a reference to the SF doc.
var sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").doc("SF");

db.runTransaction((transaction) => {
    return transaction.get(sfDocRef).then((sfDoc) => {
        if (!sfDoc.exists) {
            throw "Document does not exist!";
        }

        var newPopulation = sfDoc.data().population + 1;
        if (newPopulation <= 1000000) {
            transaction.update(sfDocRef, { population: newPopulation });
            return newPopulation;
        } else {
            return Promise.reject("Sorry! Population is too big.");
        }
    });
}).then((newPopulation) => {
    console.log("Population increased to ", newPopulation);
}).catch((err) => {
    // This will be an "population is too big" error.
    console.error(err);
});
Schnell
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
let sfReference = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

db.runTransaction({ (transaction, errorPointer) -> Any? in
    let sfDocument: DocumentSnapshot
    do {
        try sfDocument = transaction.getDocument(sfReference)
    } catch let fetchError as NSError {
        errorPointer?.pointee = fetchError
        return nil
    }

    guard let oldPopulation = sfDocument.data()?["population"] as? Int else {
        let error = NSError(
            domain: "AppErrorDomain",
            code: -1,
            userInfo: [
                NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: "Unable to retrieve population from snapshot \(sfDocument)"
            ]
        )
        errorPointer?.pointee = error
        return nil
    }

    // Note: this could be done without a transaction
    //       by updating the population using FieldValue.increment()
    let newPopulation = oldPopulation + 1
    guard newPopulation <= 1000000 else {
        let error = NSError(
            domain: "AppErrorDomain",
            code: -2,
            userInfo: [NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: "Population \(newPopulation) too big"]
        )
        errorPointer?.pointee = error
        return nil
    }

    transaction.updateData(["population": newPopulation], forDocument: sfReference)
    return newPopulation
}) { (object, error) in
    if let error = error {
        print("Error updating population: \(error)")
    } else {
        print("Population increased to \(object!)")
    }
}
Ziel c
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
FIRDocumentReference *sfReference =
[[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] documentWithPath:@"SF"];
[self.db runTransactionWithBlock:^id (FIRTransaction *transaction, NSError **errorPointer) {
  FIRDocumentSnapshot *sfDocument = [transaction getDocument:sfReference error:errorPointer];
  if (*errorPointer != nil) { return nil; }

  if (![sfDocument.data[@"population"] isKindOfClass:[NSNumber class]]) {
    *errorPointer = [NSError errorWithDomain:@"AppErrorDomain" code:-1 userInfo:@{
      NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: @"Unable to retreive population from snapshot"
    }];
    return nil;
  }
  NSInteger population = [sfDocument.data[@"population"] integerValue];

  population++;
  if (population >= 1000000) {
    *errorPointer = [NSError errorWithDomain:@"AppErrorDomain" code:-2 userInfo:@{
      NSLocalizedDescriptionKey: @"Population too big"
    }];
    return @(population);
  }

  [transaction updateData:@{ @"population": @(population) } forDocument:sfReference];

  return nil;
} completion:^(id result, NSError *error) {
  if (error != nil) {
    NSLog(@"Transaction failed: %@", error);
  } else {
    NSLog(@"Population increased to %@", result);
  }
}];

Java

final DocumentReference sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");

db.runTransaction(new Transaction.Function<Double>() {
    @Override
    public Double apply(Transaction transaction) throws FirebaseFirestoreException {
        DocumentSnapshot snapshot = transaction.get(sfDocRef);
        double newPopulation = snapshot.getDouble("population") + 1;
        if (newPopulation <= 1000000) {
            transaction.update(sfDocRef, "population", newPopulation);
            return newPopulation;
        } else {
            throw new FirebaseFirestoreException("Population too high",
                    FirebaseFirestoreException.Code.ABORTED);
        }
    }
}).addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<Double>() {
    @Override
    public void onSuccess(Double result) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Transaction success: " + result);
    }
})
.addOnFailureListener(new OnFailureListener() {
    @Override
    public void onFailure(@NonNull Exception e) {
        Log.w(TAG, "Transaction failure.", e);
    }
});

Kotlin+KTX

val sfDocRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

db.runTransaction { transaction ->
    val snapshot = transaction.get(sfDocRef)
    val newPopulation = snapshot.getDouble("population")!! + 1
    if (newPopulation <= 1000000) {
        transaction.update(sfDocRef, "population", newPopulation)
        newPopulation
    } else {
        throw FirebaseFirestoreException("Population too high",
                FirebaseFirestoreException.Code.ABORTED)
    }
}.addOnSuccessListener { result ->
    Log.d(TAG, "Transaction success: $result")
}.addOnFailureListener { e ->
    Log.w(TAG, "Transaction failure.", e)
}
Java
final DocumentReference docRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");
ApiFuture<String> futureTransaction = db.runTransaction(transaction -> {
  DocumentSnapshot snapshot = transaction.get(docRef).get();
  Long newPopulation = snapshot.getLong("population") + 1;
  // conditionally update based on current population
  if (newPopulation <= 1000000L) {
    transaction.update(docRef, "population", newPopulation);
    return "Population increased to " + newPopulation;
  } else {
    throw new Exception("Sorry! Population is too big.");
  }
});
// Print information retrieved from transaction
System.out.println(futureTransaction.get());
Python
transaction = db.transaction()
city_ref = db.collection(u'cities').document(u'SF')

@firestore.transactional
def update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref):
    snapshot = city_ref.get(transaction=transaction)
    new_population = snapshot.get(u'population') + 1

    if new_population < 1000000:
        transaction.update(city_ref, {
            u'population': new_population
        })
        return True
    else:
        return False

result = update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref)
if result:
    print(u'Population updated')
else:
    print(u'Sorry! Population is too big.')

Python

transaction = db.transaction()
city_ref = db.collection("cities").document("SF")

@firestore.async_transactional
async def update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref):
    snapshot = await city_ref.get(transaction=transaction)
    new_population = snapshot.get("population") + 1

    if new_population < 1000000:
        transaction.update(city_ref, {"population": new_population})
        return True
    else:
        return False

result = await update_in_transaction(transaction, city_ref)
if result:
    print("Population updated")
else:
    print("Sorry! Population is too big.")
C++
// This is not yet supported.
Node.js
const cityRef = db.collection('cities').doc('SF');
try {
  const res = await db.runTransaction(async t => {
    const doc = await t.get(cityRef);
    const newPopulation = doc.data().population + 1;
    if (newPopulation <= 1000000) {
      await t.update(cityRef, { population: newPopulation });
      return `Population increased to ${newPopulation}`;
    } else {
      throw 'Sorry! Population is too big.';
    }
  });
  console.log('Transaction success', res);
} catch (e) {
  console.log('Transaction failure:', e);
}
gehen
ref := client.Collection("cities").Doc("SF")
err := client.RunTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, tx *firestore.Transaction) error {
	doc, err := tx.Get(ref)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	pop, err := doc.DataAt("population")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	newpop := pop.(int64) + 1
	if newpop <= 1000000 {
		return tx.Set(ref, map[string]interface{}{
			"population": pop.(int64) + 1,
		}, firestore.MergeAll)
	}
	return errors.New("population is too big")
})
if err != nil {
	// Handle any errors in an appropriate way, such as returning them.
	log.Printf("An error has occurred: %s", err)
}
PHP
$cityRef = $db->collection('samples/php/cities')->document('SF');
$transactionResult = $db->runTransaction(function (Transaction $transaction) use ($cityRef) {
    $snapshot = $transaction->snapshot($cityRef);
    $newPopulation = $snapshot['population'] + 1;
    if ($newPopulation <= 1000000) {
        $transaction->update($cityRef, [
            ['path' => 'population', 'value' => $newPopulation]
        ]);
        return true;
    } else {
        return false;
    }
});

if ($transactionResult) {
    printf('Population updated successfully.' . PHP_EOL);
} else {
    printf('Sorry! Population is too big.' . PHP_EOL);
}
Einheit
DocumentReference cityRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
db.RunTransactionAsync(transaction =>
{
    return transaction.GetSnapshotAsync(cityRef).ContinueWith((task) =>
    {
        long newPopulation = task.Result.GetValue<long>("Population") + 1;
        if (newPopulation <= 1000000)
        {
            Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
            {
                { "Population", newPopulation}
            };
            transaction.Update(cityRef, updates);
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        } 
    });
}).ContinueWith((transactionResultTask) =>
{
    if (transactionResultTask.Result)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Population updated successfully.");
    }
    else
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Sorry! Population is too big.");
    } 
});
C#
DocumentReference cityRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
bool transactionResult = await db.RunTransactionAsync(async transaction =>
{
    DocumentSnapshot snapshot = await transaction.GetSnapshotAsync(cityRef);
    long newPopulation = snapshot.GetValue<long>("Population") + 1;
    if (newPopulation <= 1000000)
    {
        Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
        {
            { "Population", newPopulation}
        };
        transaction.Update(cityRef, updates);
        return true;
    }
    else
    {
        return false;
    }
});

if (transactionResult)
{
    Console.WriteLine("Population updated successfully.");
}
else
{
    Console.WriteLine("Sorry! Population is too big.");
}
Rubin
city_ref = firestore.doc "#{collection_path}/SF"

updated = firestore.transaction do |tx|
  new_population = tx.get(city_ref).data[:population] + 1
  if new_population < 1_000_000
    tx.update city_ref, { population: new_population }
    true
  end
end

if updated
  puts "Population updated!"
else
  puts "Sorry! Population is too big."
end

Transaktionsfehler

Eine Transaktion kann aus folgenden Gründen fehlschlagen:

  • Die Transaktion enthält Leseoperationen nach Schreiboperationen. Leseoperationen müssen immer vor Schreiboperationen stehen.
  • Die Transaktion hat ein Dokument gelesen, das außerhalb der Transaktion geändert wurde. In diesem Fall wird die Transaktion automatisch erneut ausgeführt. Die Transaktion wird eine endliche Anzahl von Malen wiederholt.
  • Die Transaktion hat die maximale Anfragegröße von 10 MiB überschritten.

    Die Transaktionsgröße hängt von der Größe der Dokumente und Indexeinträge ab, die durch die Transaktion geändert wurden. Bei einer Löschoperation umfasst dies die Größe des Zieldokuments und die Größe der als Reaktion auf die Operation gelöschten Indexeinträge.

Eine fehlgeschlagene Transaktion gibt einen Fehler zurück und schreibt nichts in die Datenbank. Sie müssen die Transaktion nicht rückgängig machen; Cloud Firestore macht dies automatisch.

Gestapelte Schreibvorgänge

Wenn Sie keine Dokumente in Ihrem Betrieb Satz zu lesen brauchen, können Sie mehrere Schreiboperationen als eine einzelne Charge ausführen , die eine beliebige Kombination aus enthält set() , update() oder delete() Operationen. Ein Stapel von Schreibvorgängen wird atomar abgeschlossen und kann in mehrere Dokumente schreiben. Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie Sie einen Schreibbatch erstellen und festschreiben:

Webversion 9

import { writeBatch, doc } from "firebase/firestore"; 

// Get a new write batch
const batch = writeBatch(db);

// Set the value of 'NYC'
const nycRef = doc(db, "cities", "NYC");
batch.set(nycRef, {name: "New York City"});

// Update the population of 'SF'
const sfRef = doc(db, "cities", "SF");
batch.update(sfRef, {"population": 1000000});

// Delete the city 'LA'
const laRef = doc(db, "cities", "LA");
batch.delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
await batch.commit();

Webversion 8

// Get a new write batch
var batch = db.batch();

// Set the value of 'NYC'
var nycRef = db.collection("cities").doc("NYC");
batch.set(nycRef, {name: "New York City"});

// Update the population of 'SF'
var sfRef = db.collection("cities").doc("SF");
batch.update(sfRef, {"population": 1000000});

// Delete the city 'LA'
var laRef = db.collection("cities").doc("LA");
batch.delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
batch.commit().then(() => {
    // ...
});
Schnell
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
// Get new write batch
let batch = db.batch()

// Set the value of 'NYC'
let nycRef = db.collection("cities").document("NYC")
batch.setData([:], forDocument: nycRef)

// Update the population of 'SF'
let sfRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF")
batch.updateData(["population": 1000000 ], forDocument: sfRef)

// Delete the city 'LA'
let laRef = db.collection("cities").document("LA")
batch.deleteDocument(laRef)

// Commit the batch
batch.commit() { err in
    if let err = err {
        print("Error writing batch \(err)")
    } else {
        print("Batch write succeeded.")
    }
}
Ziel c
Hinweis: Dieses Produkt ist nicht verfügbar auf watchOS und App Clip Ziele.
// Get new write batch
FIRWriteBatch *batch = [self.db batch];

// Set the value of 'NYC'
FIRDocumentReference *nycRef =
    [[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] documentWithPath:@"NYC"];
[batch setData:@{} forDocument:nycRef];

// Update the population of 'SF'
FIRDocumentReference *sfRef =
    [[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] documentWithPath:@"SF"];
[batch updateData:@{ @"population": @1000000 } forDocument:sfRef];

// Delete the city 'LA'
FIRDocumentReference *laRef =
    [[self.db collectionWithPath:@"cities"] documentWithPath:@"LA"];
[batch deleteDocument:laRef];

// Commit the batch
[batch commitWithCompletion:^(NSError * _Nullable error) {
  if (error != nil) {
    NSLog(@"Error writing batch %@", error);
  } else {
    NSLog(@"Batch write succeeded.");
  }
}];

Java

// Get a new write batch
WriteBatch batch = db.batch();

// Set the value of 'NYC'
DocumentReference nycRef = db.collection("cities").document("NYC");
batch.set(nycRef, new City());

// Update the population of 'SF'
DocumentReference sfRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");
batch.update(sfRef, "population", 1000000L);

// Delete the city 'LA'
DocumentReference laRef = db.collection("cities").document("LA");
batch.delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
batch.commit().addOnCompleteListener(new OnCompleteListener<Void>() {
    @Override
    public void onComplete(@NonNull Task<Void> task) {
        // ...
    }
});

Kotlin+KTX

val nycRef = db.collection("cities").document("NYC")
val sfRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF")
val laRef = db.collection("cities").document("LA")

// Get a new write batch and commit all write operations
db.runBatch { batch ->
    // Set the value of 'NYC'
    batch.set(nycRef, City())

    // Update the population of 'SF'
    batch.update(sfRef, "population", 1000000L)

    // Delete the city 'LA'
    batch.delete(laRef)
}.addOnCompleteListener {
    // ...
}
Java
// Get a new write batch
WriteBatch batch = db.batch();

// Set the value of 'NYC'
DocumentReference nycRef = db.collection("cities").document("NYC");
batch.set(nycRef, new City());

// Update the population of 'SF'
DocumentReference sfRef = db.collection("cities").document("SF");
batch.update(sfRef, "population", 1000000L);

// Delete the city 'LA'
DocumentReference laRef = db.collection("cities").document("LA");
batch.delete(laRef);

// asynchronously commit the batch
ApiFuture<List<WriteResult>> future = batch.commit();
// ...
// future.get() blocks on batch commit operation
for (WriteResult result : future.get()) {
  System.out.println("Update time : " + result.getUpdateTime());
}
Python
batch = db.batch()

# Set the data for NYC
nyc_ref = db.collection(u'cities').document(u'NYC')
batch.set(nyc_ref, {u'name': u'New York City'})

# Update the population for SF
sf_ref = db.collection(u'cities').document(u'SF')
batch.update(sf_ref, {u'population': 1000000})

# Delete DEN
den_ref = db.collection(u'cities').document(u'DEN')
batch.delete(den_ref)

# Commit the batch
batch.commit()

Python

batch = db.batch()

# Set the data for NYC
nyc_ref = db.collection("cities").document("NYC")
batch.set(nyc_ref, {"name": "New York City"})

# Update the population for SF
sf_ref = db.collection("cities").document("SF")
batch.update(sf_ref, {"population": 1000000})

# Delete DEN
den_ref = db.collection("cities").document("DEN")
batch.delete(den_ref)

# Commit the batch
await batch.commit()
C++
// Get a new write batch
WriteBatch batch = db->batch();

// Set the value of 'NYC'
DocumentReference nyc_ref = db->Collection("cities").Document("NYC");
batch.Set(nyc_ref, {});

// Update the population of 'SF'
DocumentReference sf_ref = db->Collection("cities").Document("SF");
batch.Update(sf_ref, {{"population", FieldValue::Integer(1000000)}});

// Delete the city 'LA'
DocumentReference la_ref = db->Collection("cities").Document("LA");
batch.Delete(la_ref);

// Commit the batch
batch.Commit().OnCompletion([](const Future<void>& future) {
  if (future.error() == Error::kErrorOk) {
    std::cout << "Write batch success!" << std::endl;
  } else {
    std::cout << "Write batch failure: " << future.error_message() << std::endl;
  }
});
Node.js
// Get a new write batch
const batch = db.batch();

// Set the value of 'NYC'
const nycRef = db.collection('cities').doc('NYC');
batch.set(nycRef, {name: 'New York City'});

// Update the population of 'SF'
const sfRef = db.collection('cities').doc('SF');
batch.update(sfRef, {population: 1000000});

// Delete the city 'LA'
const laRef = db.collection('cities').doc('LA');
batch.delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
await batch.commit();
gehen
// Get a new write batch.
batch := client.Batch()

// Set the value of "NYC".
nycRef := client.Collection("cities").Doc("NYC")
batch.Set(nycRef, map[string]interface{}{
	"name": "New York City",
})

// Update the population of "SF".
sfRef := client.Collection("cities").Doc("SF")
batch.Set(sfRef, map[string]interface{}{
	"population": 1000000,
}, firestore.MergeAll)

// Delete the city "LA".
laRef := client.Collection("cities").Doc("LA")
batch.Delete(laRef)

// Commit the batch.
_, err := batch.Commit(ctx)
if err != nil {
	// Handle any errors in an appropriate way, such as returning them.
	log.Printf("An error has occurred: %s", err)
}
PHP
$batch = $db->batch();

# Set the data for NYC
$nycRef = $db->collection('samples/php/cities')->document('NYC');
$batch->set($nycRef, [
    'name' => 'New York City'
]);

# Update the population for SF
$sfRef = $db->collection('samples/php/cities')->document('SF');
$batch->update($sfRef, [
    ['path' => 'population', 'value' => 1000000]
]);

# Delete LA
$laRef = $db->collection('samples/php/cities')->document('LA');
$batch->delete($laRef);

# Commit the batch
$batch->commit();
Einheit
WriteBatch batch = db.StartBatch();

// Set the data for NYC
DocumentReference nycRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("NYC");
Dictionary<string, object> nycData = new Dictionary<string, object>
{
    { "name", "New York City" }
};
batch.Set(nycRef, nycData);

// Update the population for SF
DocumentReference sfRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
{
    { "Population", 1000000}
};
batch.Update(sfRef, updates);

// Delete LA
DocumentReference laRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("LA");
batch.Delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
batch.CommitAsync();
C#
WriteBatch batch = db.StartBatch();

// Set the data for NYC
DocumentReference nycRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("NYC");
Dictionary<string, object> nycData = new Dictionary<string, object>
{
    { "name", "New York City" }
};
batch.Set(nycRef, nycData);

// Update the population for SF
DocumentReference sfRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("SF");
Dictionary<string, object> updates = new Dictionary<string, object>
{
    { "Population", 1000000}
};
batch.Update(sfRef, updates);

// Delete LA
DocumentReference laRef = db.Collection("cities").Document("LA");
batch.Delete(laRef);

// Commit the batch
await batch.CommitAsync();
Rubin
firestore.batch do |b|
  # Set the data for NYC
  b.set "#{collection_path}/NYC", { name: "New York City" }

  # Update the population for SF
  b.update "#{collection_path}/SF", { population: 1_000_000 }

  # Delete LA
  b.delete "#{collection_path}/LA"
end

Ein Batch-Schreibvorgang kann bis zu 500 Operationen enthalten. Jeder Vorgang im Batch wird separat für Ihre Cloud Firestore-Nutzung angerechnet.

Wie Transaktionen sind Batch-Schreibvorgänge atomar. Im Gegensatz zu Transaktionen müssen Batch-Schreibvorgänge nicht sicherstellen, dass gelesene Dokumente unverändert bleiben, was zu weniger Fehlerfällen führt. Sie unterliegen keinen Wiederholungsversuchen oder Fehlern bei zu vielen Wiederholungsversuchen. Gestapelte Schreibvorgänge werden auch dann ausgeführt, wenn das Gerät des Benutzers offline ist.

Datenvalidierung für atomare Operationen

Für mobile / web - Client - Bibliotheken können Sie Daten mit validieren Wolke Firestor Sicherheitsregeln . Sie können sicherstellen, dass zugehörige Dokumente immer atomar und immer als Teil einer Transaktion oder eines Batch-Schreibvorgangs aktualisiert werden. Verwenden Sie die getAfter() Sicherheitsregel - Funktion für den Zugriff und validieren , die den Zustand eines Dokuments nach einer Reihe von Operationen abgeschlossen ist, aber bevor Wolke Firestore verpflichtet sich, die Operationen.

Zum Beispiel vorstellen, dass die Datenbank für die cities Beispiel auch eine enthält countries Sammlung. Jedes country Dokument verwendet eine last_updated Feldspur letztes Mal zu halten jede Stadt in dieses Land bezogen wurde aktualisiert. Die folgenden Sicherheitsregeln verlangen , dass ein Update auf eine city Dokument muss atomar auch das zugehörige Land aktualisiert last_updated Feld:

service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    // If you update a city doc, you must also
    // update the related country's last_updated field.
    match /cities/{city} {
      allow write: if request.auth != null &&
        getAfter(
          /databases/$(database)/documents/countries/$(request.resource.data.country)
        ).data.last_updated == request.time;
    }

    match /countries/{country} {
      allow write: if request.auth != null;
    }
  }
}

Grenzen der Sicherheitsregeln

In Sicherheitsregeln für Transaktionen oder batched schreibt, gibt es eine Grenze von 20 Dokumentenzugriff Anrufe für die gesamte atomare Operation zusätzlich zu den normalen 10 Anrufzeit für jedes einzelne Dokument Betrieb im Stapel.

Betrachten Sie beispielsweise die folgenden Regeln für eine Chat-Anwendung:

service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{db}/documents {
    function prefix() {
      return /databases/{db}/documents;
    }
    match /chatroom/{roomId} {
      allow read, write: if request.auth != null && roomId in get(/$(prefix())/users/$(request.auth.uid)).data.chats
                            || exists(/$(prefix())/admins/$(request.auth.uid));
    }
    match /users/{userId} {
      allow read, write: if request.auth != null && request.auth.uid == userId
                            || exists(/$(prefix())/admins/$(request.auth.uid));
    }
    match /admins/{userId} {
      allow read, write: if request.auth != null && exists(/$(prefix())/admins/$(request.auth.uid));
    }
  }
}

Die folgenden Ausschnitte veranschaulichen die Anzahl der Dokumentzugriffsaufrufe, die für einige Datenzugriffsmuster verwendet werden:

// 0 document access calls used, because the rules evaluation short-circuits
// before the exists() call is invoked.
db.collection('user').doc('myuid').get(...);

// 1 document access call used. The maximum total allowed for this call
// is 10, because it is a single document request.
db.collection('chatroom').doc('mygroup').get(...);

// Initializing a write batch...
var batch = db.batch();

// 2 document access calls used, 10 allowed.
var group1Ref = db.collection("chatroom").doc("group1");
batch.set(group1Ref, {msg: "Hello, from Admin!"});

// 1 document access call used, 10 allowed.
var newUserRef = db.collection("users").doc("newuser");
batch.update(newUserRef, {"lastSignedIn": new Date()});

// 1 document access call used, 10 allowed.
var removedAdminRef = db.collection("admin").doc("otheruser");
batch.delete(removedAdminRef);

// The batch used a total of 2 + 1 + 1 = 4 document access calls, out of a total
// 20 allowed.
batch.commit();