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Cloud Firestore でデータを並べ替えたり制限する

Cloud Firestore には、コレクションから取得するドキュメントを指定できる強力なクエリ機能があります。これらのクエリは、データを取得するで説明しているように、get() または addSnapshotListener() とあわせて使用することもできます。

データを並べ替えたり制限する

デフォルトでは、クエリを満たすすべてのドキュメントが、ドキュメント ID の昇順で取得されます。orderBy() を使用してデータの並べ替え順を指定したり、limit() を使用して取得するドキュメントの数を制限したりできます。

たとえば、英字順に並べ替え、最初の 3 つの都市を取得するには、次のようにします。

ウェブ バージョン 9

import { query, orderBy, limit } from "firebase/firestore";

const q = query(citiesRef, orderBy("name"), limit(3));

ウェブ バージョン 8

citiesRef.orderBy("name").limit(3);
Swift
citiesRef.order(by: "name").limit(to: 3)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryOrderedByField:@"name"] queryLimitedTo:3];

Java

citiesRef.orderBy("name").limit(3);

Kotlin+KTX

citiesRef.orderBy("name").limit(3)
Java
Query query = cities.orderBy("name").limit(3);
Query query = cities.orderBy("name").limitToLast(3);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
query = cities_ref.order_by("name").limit_to_last(2)
results = query.get()

Python

cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
query = cities_ref.order_by("name").limit_to_last(2)
results = await query.get()
C++
cities_ref.OrderBy("name").Limit(3);
Node.js
const firstThreeRes = await citiesRef.orderBy('name').limit(3).get();
Go
query := cities.OrderBy("name", firestore.Asc).Limit(3)
query := cities.OrderBy("name", firestore.Asc).LimitToLast(3)
PHP
$query = $citiesRef->orderBy('name')->limit(3);
Unity
Query query = citiesRef.OrderBy("Name").Limit(3);
C#
Query query = citiesRef.OrderBy("Name").Limit(3);
Ruby
query = cities_ref.order("name").limit(3)

また、降順で並べ替え、最後の 3 つの都市を取得することもできます。

ウェブ バージョン 9

import { query, orderBy, limit } from "firebase/firestore";

const q = query(citiesRef, orderBy("name", "desc"), limit(3));

ウェブ バージョン 8

citiesRef.orderBy("name", "desc").limit(3);
Swift
citiesRef.order(by: "name", descending: true).limit(to: 3)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryOrderedByField:@"name" descending:YES] queryLimitedTo:3];

Java

citiesRef.orderBy("name", Direction.DESCENDING).limit(3);

Kotlin+KTX

citiesRef.orderBy("name", Query.Direction.DESCENDING).limit(3)
Java
Query query = cities.orderBy("name", Direction.DESCENDING).limit(3);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
query = cities_ref.order_by(
    u'name', direction=firestore.Query.DESCENDING).limit(3)
results = query.stream()

Python

cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
query = cities_ref.order_by("name", direction=firestore.Query.DESCENDING).limit(3)
results = query.stream()
C++
cities_ref.OrderBy("name", Query::Direction::kDescending).Limit(3);
Node.js
const lastThreeRes = await citiesRef.orderBy('name', 'desc').limit(3).get();
Go
query := cities.OrderBy("name", firestore.Desc).Limit(3)
PHP
$query = $citiesRef->orderBy('name', 'DESC')->limit(3);
Unity
Query query = citiesRef.OrderByDescending("Name").Limit(3);
C#
Query query = citiesRef.OrderByDescending("Name").Limit(3);
Ruby
query = cities_ref.order("name", "desc").limit(3)

複数のフィールドで並べ替えを行うこともできます。たとえば、州で並べ替え、各州の中で人口の降順で並べ替える場合は、次のようにします。

ウェブ バージョン 9

import { query, orderBy } from "firebase/firestore";

const q = query(citiesRef, orderBy("state"), orderBy("population", "desc"));

ウェブ バージョン 8

citiesRef.orderBy("state").orderBy("population", "desc");
Swift
citiesRef
    .order(by: "state")
    .order(by: "population", descending: true)
Objective-C
[[citiesRef queryOrderedByField:@"state"] queryOrderedByField:@"population" descending:YES];

Java

citiesRef.orderBy("state").orderBy("population", Direction.DESCENDING);

Kotlin+KTX

citiesRef.orderBy("state").orderBy("population", Query.Direction.DESCENDING)
Java
Query query = cities.orderBy("state").orderBy("population", Direction.DESCENDING);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
cities_ref.order_by(u'state').order_by(
    u'population', direction=firestore.Query.DESCENDING)

Python

cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
cities_ref.order_by("state").order_by(
    "population", direction=firestore.Query.DESCENDING
)
C++
cities_ref.OrderBy("state").OrderBy("name", Query::Direction::kDescending);
Node.js
const byStateByPopRes = await citiesRef.orderBy('state').orderBy('population', 'desc').get();
Go
query := client.Collection("cities").OrderBy("state", firestore.Asc).OrderBy("population", firestore.Desc)
PHP
$query = $citiesRef->orderBy('state')->orderBy('population', 'DESC');
Unity
Query query = citiesRef.OrderBy("State").OrderByDescending("Population");
C#
Query query = citiesRef.OrderBy("State").OrderByDescending("Population");
Ruby
query = cities_ref.order("state").order("population", "desc")

where() フィルタは orderBy()limit() と組み合わせることが可能です。次の例では、クエリによって人口のしきい値が定義され、人口の昇順で並べ替えて、しきい値を超えている最初の数件の結果のみが返されます。

ウェブ バージョン 9

import { query, where, orderBy, limit } from "firebase/firestore";

const q = query(citiesRef, where("population", ">", 100000), orderBy("population"), limit(2));

ウェブ バージョン 8

citiesRef.where("population", ">", 100000).orderBy("population").limit(2);
Swift
citiesRef
    .whereField("population", isGreaterThan: 100000)
    .order(by: "population")
    .limit(to: 2)
Objective-C
[[[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"population" isGreaterThan:@100000]
    queryOrderedByField:@"population"]
    queryLimitedTo:2];

Java

citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("population").limit(2);

Kotlin+KTX

citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("population").limit(2)
Java
Query query = cities.whereGreaterThan("population", 2500000L).orderBy("population").limit(2);
Python
cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
query = cities_ref.where(
    u'population', u'>', 2500000).order_by(u'population').limit(2)
results = query.stream()

Python

cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2500000).order_by("population").limit(2)
results = query.stream()
C++
cities_ref.WhereGreaterThan("population", FieldValue::Integer(100000))
    .OrderBy("population")
    .Limit(2);
Node.js
const biggestRes = await citiesRef.where('population', '>', 2500000)
  .orderBy('population').limit(2).get();
Go
query := cities.Where("population", ">", 2500000).OrderBy("population", firestore.Desc).Limit(2)
PHP
$query = $citiesRef
    ->where('population', '>', 2500000)
    ->orderBy('population')
    ->limit(2);
Unity
Query query = citiesRef
    .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
    .OrderBy("Population")
    .Limit(2);
C#
Query query = citiesRef
    .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
    .OrderBy("Population")
    .Limit(2);
Ruby
query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2_500_000).order("population").limit(2)

ただし、範囲比較(<<=>>=)のフィルタがある場合、最初の並べ替えは同じフィールドで行う必要があります。下の orderBy() の制限事項の一覧をご覧ください。

制限事項

orderBy() 句の次の制限事項に注意してください。

  • orderBy() 句は、指定したフィールドの有無によるフィルタも行います。指定したフィールドがないドキュメントは結果セットには含まれません。
  • 範囲比較(<<=>>=)のフィルタを含める場合、最初の並べ替えは同じフィールドで行う必要があります。

    有効: 範囲フィルタと orderBy を同じフィールドに使用する

    ウェブ バージョン 9

    import { query, where, orderBy } from "firebase/firestore";
    
    const q = query(citiesRef, where("population", ">", 100000), orderBy("population"));

    ウェブ バージョン 8

    citiesRef.where("population", ">", 100000).orderBy("population");
    Swift
    citiesRef
        .whereField("population", isGreaterThan: 100000)
        .order(by: "population")
    Objective-C
    [[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"population" isGreaterThan:@100000]
        queryOrderedByField:@"population"];

    Java

    citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("population");

    Kotlin+KTX

    citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("population")
    Java
    Query query = cities.whereGreaterThan("population", 2500000L).orderBy("population");
    Python
    cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
    query = cities_ref.where(
        u'population', u'>', 2500000).order_by(u'population')
    results = query.stream()

    Python

    cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
    query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2500000).order_by("population")
    results = query.stream()
    Node.js
    citiesRef.where('population', '>', 2500000).orderBy('population');
    Go
    query := cities.Where("population", ">", 2500000).OrderBy("population", firestore.Asc)
    PHP
    $query = $citiesRef
        ->where('population', '>', 2500000)
        ->orderBy('population');
    Unity
    Query query = citiesRef
        .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
        .OrderBy("Population");
    C#
    Query query = citiesRef
        .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
        .OrderBy("Population");
    Ruby
    query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2_500_000).order("population")

    無効: 範囲フィルタと最初の orderBy を異なるフィールドに使用する

    ウェブ バージョン 9

    import { query, where, orderBy } from "firebase/firestore";
    
    const q = query(citiesRef, where("population", ">", 100000), orderBy("country"));

    ウェブ バージョン 8

    citiesRef.where("population", ">", 100000).orderBy("country");
    Swift
    citiesRef
        .whereField("population", isGreaterThan: 100000)
        .order(by: "country")
    Objective-C
    [[citiesRef queryWhereField:@"population" isGreaterThan:@100000] queryOrderedByField:@"country"];

    Java

    citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("country");

    Kotlin+KTX

    citiesRef.whereGreaterThan("population", 100000).orderBy("country")
    Java
    Query query = cities.whereGreaterThan("population", 2500000L).orderBy("country");
    Python
    cities_ref = db.collection(u'cities')
    query = cities_ref.where(u'population', u'>', 2500000).order_by(u'country')
    results = query.stream()

    Python

    cities_ref = db.collection("cities")
    query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2500000).order_by("country")
    results = query.stream()
    C++
    // BAD EXAMPLE -- will crash the program:
    cities_ref.WhereGreaterThan("population", FieldValue::Integer(100000))
        .OrderBy("country");
    Node.js
    citiesRef.where('population', '>', 2500000).orderBy('country');
    Go
    // Note: This is an invalid query. It violates the constraint that range
    // and order by are required to be on the same field.
    query := cities.Where("population", ">", 2500000).OrderBy("country", firestore.Asc)
    PHP
    $invalidRangeQuery = $citiesRef
        ->where('population', '>', 2500000)
        ->orderBy('country');
    Unity
    Query query = citiesRef
        .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
        .OrderBy("Country");
    C#
    Query query = citiesRef
        .WhereGreaterThan("Population", 2500000)
        .OrderBy("Country");
    Ruby
    query = cities_ref.where("population", ">", 2_500_000).order("country")
  • 等価(=)または in 句に含まれるフィールドでクエリを並べ替えることはできません。